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Aim of the Work: To evaluate the diagnostic function of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in diabetic maculopathy and the most significant and common OCT findings.
Patients and Methods: This study was a prospective, non-comparative, non-interventional, case series, carried out between November 2015 to March 2017 and included 500 eyes of 287 diabetic patients with diabetic maculopathy. Their retinas were assessed and classified according to OCT findings of retinal thickness, retinal morphology, retinal topography, macular traction, and foveal photoreceptor status.
Results: OCT classification of the cases according to their retinal thickness showed that 18.8% of the cases had no macular edema, 21.8% had early subclinical macular edema and 59.4% had established macular edema. Regarding retinal morphology, OCT showed that 62.8% of the cases had simple non cystoids macular edema, 31.6% had early cystoid macular edema and 5.6% had serous macular detachment. 89.8% of the cases had no macular traction, 7.6% had questionable macular traction and 2.8% had definite macular traction. The retinal outer layers integrity showed that 94.4% of cases had intact inner segment/outer segment line (IS/OS) and external limiting membrane (ELM) and 5.6% had IS/OS and ELM with disrupted integrity
Conclusion: Our study concluded that OCT provided variable data about the thickness, morphology, topography, specific changes in the outer retina and the presence of VMT (vitreo-macular traction) in cases of DME (diabetic macular edema). Among patients at Sohag Governorate, Simple non cystoid macular edema was the most common finding with little incidence of VMT and affection of the outer retina.