Main Article Content
Aim: To determine the anthropometric parameters affecting ocular axial length in Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
Methods: This was a community based descriptive study carried out in Port Harcourt City LGA, Nigeria using a multistage random sampling technique. Inclusion criteria were Visual Acuity > 6/18, age greater than 18 years and no history of past ocular surgeries or trauma. Socio demographic data was obtained through an interviewer based proforma and included age, sex and tribe. Anthropometric parameters were measured using a standard height and weight automated scale (SECA 769,220). Ocular examinations done included visual acuity, applanation tonometry, and ophthalmoscopy. Axial length (AL) was measured using Amplitude (A) scan ultrasonography (SONOMED PACSCAN 300AP). Data obtained from one eye of the subjects were analyzed using SPSS (Version 17), and P value was set at ≤ .05.
Results: The study was made up of two hundred and twelve (212) males (45.5%) and two hundred and fifty four (254) females (54.5%) with M: F ratio of 1:1.2 giving a total of four hundred and sixty six (466) subjects. The age range was 18-92 years and mean age of the subjects studied 43.0±14.2 years. Findings revealed mean AL, Height and Weight to be (23.2±1.0 mm), (162.5±9 cm) and (70.5±14.8 kg) respectively. The mean AL was greater in males than females. There was a statistically significant relationship between height and AL in both gender with AL increasing by 0.035mm (p=0.001, r=0.261) with one centimeter change in height in males and 0.025 mm (p=0.001, r=0.2680) in females. There was also a statistically significant (0.009 mm) increase in AL per one kilogram change in weight in females (p=0.0001, r=0.188).
Conclusion: This study noted that there are significant relationships between AL and height and weight respectively. This could add to the data bank for AL in the country and form a basis for identifying deviations from the normal, for further research.
Axial length. Encycl. Ophthalmol; 2013. Available:http://www.springerreference.com/docs/html/chapterdbid/335541.html [Assessed 22 Jul 2014]
Butterworth-Heinemann. axial length of the eye. Dict. Optom. Vis. Sci. 7th Ed. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann; 2009.
[Assessed 21 Aug 2014]
Fotedar R, Wang JJ, Burlutsky G, Morgan IG, Rose K, Wong TY, et al. Distribution of axial length and ocular biometry measured using partial coherence laser interferometry (IOL Master) in an older white population. Ophthalmology. 2010; 117:417–423.
Wong TY, Foster PJ, Ng TP, Tielsch JM, Johnson GJ, Seah SK. Variations in ocular biometry in an adult Chinese population in Singapore: The Tanjong Pagar survey. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:73– 80.
Adio AO, Onua AA, Arowolo D. Ocular axial length and keratometry readings of normal eyes in Southern Nigeria. Niger J Ophthalmol. 2010;18:12–14.
Hashemi H, Khabazkhoob M, Miraftab M, Emamian MH, Shariati M, Abdolahinia T, et al. The distribution of axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and vitreous chamber depth in an adult population of Shahroud, Iran. BMC Ophthalmol. 2012;12:50.
Lee KE, Klein BEK, Klein R, Quandt Z, Wong TY. Association of age, stature, and education with ocular dimensions in an older white population. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:88–93.
Foster PJ, Broadway DC, Hayat S, Luben R, Dalzell N, Bingham S, et al. Refractive error, axial length and anterior chamber depth of the eye in British adults: The EPIC-norfolk eye study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:827–830.
Lavanya R, Wong T-Y, Friedman DS, Aung HT, Alfred T, Gao H, et al. Determinants of angle closure in older Singaporeans. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008; 126:686–691.
Sayegh FN. The correlation of corneal refractive power, axial length, and the refractive power of the emmetropizing intraocular lens in cataractous eyes. Ger J Ophthalmol. 1996;5:328–331.
Sherpa D BB. Association between axial length of the eye and primary angle closure glaucoma. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2008;6:361–363.
Iyamu E, Iyamu JE, Amadasun G. Central corneal thickness and axial length in an adult Nigerian population. J Optom. 2013; 6:154–160.
Cekiç O, Totan Y, Aydin E, Pehlivan E, Hilmioglu F. The role of axial length in central and branch retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1999;30:523–527.
Hoffer KJ. Axial dimension of the human cataractous lens. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993; 111:914–918.
Pennie FC, Wood IC, Olsen C, White S, Charman WN. A longitudinal study of the biometric and refractive changes in full-term infants during the first year of life. Vis Res. 2001;41:2799–2810.
JJ Kanski BB. Clinical ophthalmology: A systematic approach. In: Clinical Ophthalmology: A systematic approach. Elsiever Saunders. 2011;650–652.
Ojaimi E, Morgan IG, Robaei D, Rose KA, Smith W, Rochtchina E, et al. Effect of stature and other anthropometric parameters on eye size and refraction in a population-based study of Australian children. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;46:4424–4429.
Osuebeni EP, Okpalla I, Williamson TH, Thomas P, Osuobeni EP, Okpala I. Height, weight, body mass index and ocular biometry in patients with sickle cell disease. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2009;29: 189–198.
Eysteinsson T, Jonasson F, Arnarsson Á, Sasaki H, Sasaki K, Arnarsson A. Relationships between ocular dimensions and adult stature among participants in the Reykjavik eye study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand Suppl. 2005;83:734–738.
Pereira GC, Allemann N. Ocular biometry, refractive error and its relationship with height, age, sex and education in Brazilian adults. Arq Bras Oftamol. 2007;70:487–493.
Wu HM, Gupta A, Newland HS, Selva D, Aung T, Casson RJ. Association between stature, ocular biometry and refraction in an adult population in rural Myanmar: The Meiktila eye study. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007;35:834–839.
Xu L, Wang YX, Zhang HT, Jonas JB. Anthropomorphic measurements and general and ocular parameters in adult Chinese: The Beijing eye study. Acta Ophthalmol. 2011;89:442–447.
Connell B, Brian G BM. A case-control study of biometry in healthy and cataractous Eritrean eyes. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 1997;4:151–155.
Yin G, Wang YX, Zheng ZY, Yang H, Xu L, Jonas JB. Ocular axial length and its associations in Chinese: The Beijing eye study. PLoS One. 2012;7:43172.
Disabled World. Height Chart of Men and Women in different Countries.Wkly. Newsl; 2008.
[Assessed June 22 2014]
Uranchimeg D, Yip JLY, Lee PS, Wickremasinghe S, Wong TY, Foster PJ. Cross-sectional differences in axial length of young adults living in urban and rural communities in Mongolia. Asian J Ophthalmol. 2005;7:133–139.