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Aim: To analyse different parameters responsible for occurrence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in neonatal care unit of a tertiary care hospital and to study the associated risk factors.
Materials and Methods: A prospective analytical study was carried out at NICU of KIMS Hospital Hubli, Karnataka. A total of 140 babies with gestational age at birth less than 34 weeks and birth weight less than 1750 grams were examined. Associated prenatal, intranatal and postnatal history was noted down.
Results: Incidence of ROP was found to be 27.14%. Among 140 babies screened. ROP was found in 38 babies among which 20 were males and 18 were females. Stage 1 ROP was in 11 babies (7.85%), stage 2 ROP in 24 babies (17.14%), stage 3 ROP in 2 babies (1.42%) and Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity (APROP) was found in 1 baby (0.71%). Factors which were having association with ROP by univariate analysis are gestational age at birth (p=0.005), birth weight (p=0.005), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (p=0.017), oxygen therapy (p=0.020), sepsis (p=0.001) and blood transfusion (p=0.002). Among them factors which were having independent association by multivariate analysis are birth weight (p=0.007, Odds ratio 12.581), sepsis (p=0.022, Odds ratio 5.427), blood transfusion (p=0.009, Odds ratio 23.054).
Conclusion: Incidence of ROP among screened babies is significant. All high risk babies should be screened for ROP and all eligible babies should be advised treatment. Risk factors which were having independent association with ROP are birth weight, sepsis and blood transfusion.