Pattern and Prevalence of Color Vision Disorders amongst Secondary School Students in Rivers State, Nigeria
Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal,
Aims: To determine the prevalence and pattern of color vision disorders (CVD) amongst secondary school students in Rivers State.
Study Design: A community based descriptive cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital from the 20th of January to the 30th of April 2014.
Methodology: A community based descriptive cross sectional study where study subjects were selected using multi-stage random sampling technique with inclusion criteria of consenting students with visual acuity >6/24. Ethical clearance for test was obtained from institution. Socio-demographic data obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. A comprehensive ocular examination was done and color vision assessed using the Ishihara 24 plate 2009 edition and the Farnsworth Munsell D 15 test for those who failed the Ishihara test. The prevalence of color vision disorder was determined by those that failed the Ishihara test.
Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 21. Mean and standard deviations were determined for age. The age groups gender, other demographic distribution of the subjects amongst other was presented using frequency tables and charts.
Statistical significance was put at p ≤ 0.05.
Results: 1000 students were studied which consisted of four hundred and ninety five males (n=495; 49.4%) and five hundred and six females (n=506; 50.6%), with a male female ratio of 1:1.02. Mean age of subjects was 14.3±1.8 years with an age range of 9-20 years. The prevalence of color vision disorders was 2.8% (p-value 0.000) and was higher in males (2.1%) than females (0.7%) (P-value 0.000). Deutan defects were the most predominant (1.8%) compared to protan defects (0.4%) and tritan defects (0.2%).
Conclusion: The study showed a prevalence of color vision disorders of 2.8% with male preponderance among secondary school students. Deutan color vision defects were most prevalent.
- Color vision disorders
- pattern; prevalence
- Rivers State
- secondary school.
How to Cite
Chia A, Gazzard G, Tong L, Zhang X, Sim E-L, Fong A, et al. Red-green colour blindness in Singaporean children. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2008;36:464–467.
Karim K, Saleem M. Prevalence of congenital red-green color vision defects among various ethnic groups of students in Erbil City. Jordan J. Biol. 2013;6:235–238.
Simunovic MP. Colour vision deficiency. Eye (Lond). 2010;24:747–755.
Al-Aqtum MT, Al-Qawasmeh MH. Prevalence of colour blindness in young Jordanians. Ophthalmologica. 2001;215: 39–42.
Dahlan H, Mostafa O. Screening for color vision defects among male Saudi Secondary School Children in Jizan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Med. J. Cairo Univ. 2013;81:513–517.
Kalloniatis M, Luu C. The perception of color. Organ. Retin. Vis. Syst. 2007;1–31.
Arora K, Garg R. Comparative study of colour blindness among various immigrant populations in Punjab. Int. J. Appl. Basic Med. Res. 2012;2:214–217.
Shah A, Hussain R, Fareed M, Afzal M. Prevalence of red-green color vision defects among muslim males and females of Manipur, India. Iran J. Publ. Heal. 2013;42:16–24.
Tabansi PN, Anochie IC, Nkanginieme KEO, Pedro-Egbe CN. Screening for congenital color vision deficiency in primary children in Port Harcourt City; teachers’ knowledge and performance. Niger J. Med. 2008;17:428–432.
Nwosu SN. Ocular problems of young adults in rural nigeria. Int ophthalmol 1998; 22:259–263.
Ugalahi MO, Fasina O, Ogun OA. Impact of congenital color vision defect on color-related tasks among secondary school students in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. Niger J. Ophth. 2016;24(1):20-24.
Ayanniyi A, Mahmoud A, Olatunji F. Causes and prevalence of ocular morbidity among primary school children in Ilorin, Nigeria. Niger J. Clin. 2010;13:248–253.
Mulusew A, Yilikal A. Prevalence of congenital color vision defects among school children in five schools of Abeshge District, Central Ethiopia. JOECSA. 2013; 10–14.
Oriowo O, Alotaibi A. Colour vision screening among Saudi Arabian children. S Afr Optom. 2008;67:56–61.
Horace C. Thuline M. Color-vision defects in American School Children. JAMA. 1964; 188:514–518.
Salzano F. New studies on the color vision of Brazilian Indians. Rev Bras Genét Braz J Genet. 1980;3:317–327.
Delpero W, O’Neill H. Aviation-relevent epidemiology of color vision deficiency. Aviat Space, Environ Med. 2005;76:127–133.
Rogosic V, Bojik L, Karaman K, Rogosic L. Titlic m PM. Frequency of congenital dyschromatopsias in male population of the Split-Dalmatian County In Croatia. Arr Hig Rada Toksikol. 2003;54:1–4.
Osuobeni EP. Prevalence of congenital red-green color vision defects in Arab boys from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 1996;3:167–170.
Williams GO, Taylor FE, IIO, Amusa KO. Frequency of color blindness among Nigerian school children in Lagos. Am J. Hum Biol. 1998;10:283–288.
Gashaw Garedew Woldeamanuel, Teshome Gensa Geta. Prevalence of colour vision defficiency among school children in Wolkite, Southern Ethiopia. BMC Research Notes. 2018; 11:838.
Fareed M, Anwar MA, Afzal M. Prevalence and gene frequency of colour vision impairment among children of six populations from North Indian region. Genes Dis. 2015;2(2):211-218.
Dohvoma VA, Mvogo CE. Colour vision defficiency among biomedical students: A cross-sectional study. Clin. Ophthalmol. 2018;12:1121-1124.
Chakrabarti A, Chakraborti S. Red-green colour vision defficiency and lack of awareness among rural school students in India. Iran J. Public Health. 2015;44(7): 1018-1020.
Cabrero FJ, Ortiz MA, Mesa MS, Fuster V, Moral P. Red-green colour blindness in the Tormes-Alberche Valley (Avila-Central Spain). Anthropol Anzeiger Bericht uber die Biol Lit. 1997;55:295–301.
Emerson M. Cruz M, Herma Grace S. Cerdana M, Ann Margaret B. Cabrera M, Chanda B. Garcia M, Evelyn T. Santos-Morabe M, Ma. Lourdes R. Nañagas M. Prevalence of color vision deficiency among male high school students. Philipp J. Ophthalmol. 2011;36.
Birch J. Pass rates for the farnsworth D15 colour vision test. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2008;28:259–264.
Singh A, Chahal S. Incidence of color blindness among some Endogamous groups of Bathinda District, Punjab. Internet J. Biol Anthropol. 2009;4.
Godar S, Kaini K, Khattri J. Profile of color vision defects in a Tertiary care hospital in Western Nepal. Nepal J. Med. Sci. 2014; 03:6–9.
Abstract View: 2016 times
PDF Download: 874 times