Prevalence of Dry Eye Disease in Connective Tissue Disorders

Main Article Content

Jigish Desai


Aim: To assess prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) and its severity in patients of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Primary Sjogren’s syndrome in a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat.

Methods: It is a Prospective cross-sectional study of 94 patients diagnosed with SLE and Sjogren’s syndrome. All patients underwent: 1. History taking 1. Visual acuity assessment using standard illuminated Snellen chart 2. Slit lamp examination with dry eye tests 3. Fundus examination The findings were recorded in the proforma and subsequent analysis was done using SSPS software.

Results: DED prevalence was 51.1% overall, 42% among SLE and 66.66%in Primary Sjogren’s syndrome. Severity of DED was noted to be more in Primary sjogren’swith 33.33% having severe DED.

Conclusion: DED overall prevalence in connective tissue disorders is significant, highest being in Sjogren’s. The findings highlight the severity of DED in rheumatoid arthritisgreater to when compared with other connective tissue disorders. Awareness and earlydetection of dry eye disease is of paramount to initiate appropriate treatment and reducevisual morbidity.

Cross-sectional, dry eye disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, visual acuity assessment

Article Details

How to Cite
Desai, J. (2021). Prevalence of Dry Eye Disease in Connective Tissue Disorders. Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, 14(3), 1-5.
Original Research Article


Messmer EM: The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of dry eye disease. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International. 2015;112:71.

Beckman KA, Luchs J, Milner MS: Making the diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome in patients with dry eye. Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ). 2016; 10:43.

Seewoodhary M: Eye emergencies–accident and emergency ophthalmic practice. Issues in Ophthalmic Practice: Current and Future Challenges M&K Publishing, Cumbria. 2009;47-90.

Javadi M-A, Feizi S: Dry eye syndrome. Journal of ophthalmic & vision research. 2011;6:192.

Al-Saedi Z, Zimmerman A, Devi Bachu R, Dey S, Shah Z, Baugh R, HS Boddu S: Dry eye disease: present challenges in the management and future trends. Current pharmaceutical design. 2016;22:4470-90.

Yogeswari A, Sivathanu S, Rajalakshmi A, Rani RH, Anandan H: Association of Dry Eyes with Connective Tissue Disorder. International Journal of Scientific Study. 2016;4:47-9.

Al-Bedri K, Al-Quriashi NKM, Gorial FI, Younis HA: Ocular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis: a descriptive cross-sectional study from Iraq. Int J Sci Stud. 2015;3:61-6.

Silpa-archa S, Lee JJ, Foster CS: Ocular manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2016;100:135-41.

Sivaraj R, Durrani O, Denniston A, Murray P, Gordon C: Ocular manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology. 2007;46:1757-62.

Kassan SS, Moutsopoulos HM: Clinical manifestations and early diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome. Archives of internal medicine. 2004;164:1275-84.