Visual Contribution to Motor Skill DCD Disorders & Walking Physiology Using Spatial Cognition and Linear Geometries as Landmark Coordination Cues

Chrysanthi Basdekidou *

Department of Forest and Natural Environment Sciences, The International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, Greece.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Problem: Awareness of children, who experience movement, particularly motor coordination difficulties, has increased dramatically over the last ten years. These motor coordination problems of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) or/and Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been frequently associated with poor visual and spatial eye-vision processing.

Background: Motor control difficulties for DCD and ADHD children have been discussed in detail. However, just a little is known about the influence of the natural environment on these disorders. Even more, the built environment’s impact as a spatial cognition and coordination functionality has never been considered.

Aim: This pilot and innovative study aim to identify the correlation between and evaluate the visual contribution of the so-called “spatial compound linear geometries” and DCD children’s motor/walking control.

Methodology: Twenty children aged 5 to 8 years with DCD difficulties (two intervention groups, one with 10 boys and the other one with 10 girls) were assessed by a statistical structural evaluation in three built environments (two urban parks and one pocket park), under two conditions (rich or not in trees, flora, and PnP linear geometries), and different motor coordination control situations (static balance, dynamic balances, dark condition).

Results: The worst performances (regarding movement disorders and motor coordination problems) were observed for both groups with DCD children playing in parks poor in or without trees, flora, and spatial compound linear geometries. Instead, a significant performance (strong statistical correlation) was found for the same intervention group (DCD children’s boys or girls) playing in parks rich in trees, flora, and vegetation (natural environment). The best performance (very strong statistical correlation) was detected in parks rich in a natural environment and linear geometries.  

Conclusions: While the natural environment contribution is bibliographically known, the best performance finding of the visual contribution of the spatial compound linear geometries, as spatial landmarks enriching the visual-spatial motor/walking functionalities for Children with DCD disorder, could provide new cognitive approaches towards an understanding of children’s Developmental Coordination Disorder and walking physiology. DCD children’s performance, scores, and cues were related to both the natural environment and the spatial compound linear geometries as spatial landmark motor coordination cues and spatio-temporal clues. The significant variability in sensory processing among children with DCD, ADHD, and co-occurring symptoms can contribute to understanding how neurological and social factors correlate across diagnoses. Also, derived observations for stepping errors, Gait analysis (variables), and spatio-temporal clues conclude that visual eye-based processing interrelates with motor coordination problems, performance, inattention, environmental conditions (dark), sex identity (boys, girls), and DCD hyperactivity.    

Applications: Development of interactive visual applications for (i) human spatial cognition and movement improvement; and (ii) children’s motor control and coordination refinement.

Keywords: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), children’s motor skill disorders, visual-spatial cognition & landmarks, spatial linear geometries, visual walking physiology

How to Cite

Basdekidou, C. (2023). Visual Contribution to Motor Skill DCD Disorders & Walking Physiology Using Spatial Cognition and Linear Geometries as Landmark Coordination Cues. Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, 18(1), 10–37.


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