Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal https://journalor.com/index.php/OR <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Ophthalmology Research: An international Journal (ISSN:&nbsp;2321–7227)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/OR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Ophthalmology research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal 2321-7227 Ocular Morbidities Associated with Workers in Brewing Industries https://journalor.com/index.php/OR/article/view/30161 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Globally, ocular morbidities have worsened the rate of visual impairments. It was estimated that about 285 million people are visually impaired, 39 million are blind, and 246 million have low vision. The process of beer production can lead to various eye morbidities or injuries to the workers, and these injuries are preventable. This study investigated the prevalent ocular conditions and their causes among workers in brewery Industries.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study employed a cross-sectional study design and was carried out in three different breweries. A total of 400 participants consisting of 279 males and 121 females were enrolled in this study. Questionnaires and eye examination were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize the data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Our findings revealed that&nbsp;pterygium (30%, 24.8% &amp; 24.1% respectively) was the highest prevalent ocular morbidity among workers in the brewing industry. Pinguecula (21.5%, 23.2% &amp; 17.9%) and allergic conjunctivitis (18.5%, 13.6% &amp; 7.6%) were also prevalent. Correspondingly, exposure to foreign body/dust particles (33.1%, 33.5% &amp; 29.2) accounted mostly for the causes of ocular morbidities among these workers. Other possible causes of ocular morbidities were fumes/gases, unfavorable temperature conditions, etc.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Pterygium, pinguecula and allergic conjunctivitis were prevalent among workers in &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;the brewing industry.&nbsp;Similarly,&nbsp;exposure to foreign bodies/dust particles, fumes/gases, carelessness/nonchalance by workers, and unfavorable temperature condition were the major causes of ocular morbidities/problems.</p> Ukoh Chiemeka Bright Anyatonwu Obinna Princewill ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-14 2020-07-14 1 6 10.9734/or/2020/v13i230161 Comparison between OrbscanIIz, Pentacam, Ultrasound Pachymetry (Tomey SP-100) at Different Stages of Keratoconus https://journalor.com/index.php/OR/article/view/30163 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To compare results of OrbscanIIz and Pentacam and Ultrasound pachymetry at different stages of keratoconus on corneal thickness.</p> <p><strong>Sample and Study Design:</strong> 94 keratoconic patients participated in the study, of which 52 were men and 42 women. Keratoconus patients were measured with OrbscanIIz, Pentacam and Ultrasound pachymetry in pre-operation examinations for corneal collagen cross-linking. The patients belong to different keratoconus stages.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> University of West Attica Dept Biomedical Sciensce Course Optics &amp; Optometry in collaboration with Athens “<em>Ophthalmologico”</em> Clinic during the period between October 2017 to January 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Corneal Pachymetry maps correlation of three types of corneal pachymeters OrbscanIIz, Pentacam and Ultrasound pachymetry (Tomey SP-100 Pachymeter). The measurements of the thinnest point of the cornea from each patient were collected at different stages of keratoconus and compared.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A sample of 188 eyes were measured at different stages of keratoconus and compared for the thinnest corneal thickness with three different measurement systems, OrbscanIIz ,Pentacam and Ultrasound pachymetry. At sublinical stage Orbscan-Pentacam had Correlation coefficient r=0,7971, Orbscan-Ultrasound r=0,7483 and Pentacam-Ultrasound r=0,9442. At 1<sup>st</sup> stage Orbscan-Pentacam had Correlation coefficient r=0,8913, Orbscan-Ultrasound r=0,8151 and Pentacam-Ultrasound r=0,8151. At 2<sup>nd</sup> stage Orbscan-Pentacam had Correlation coefficient r=0,9339, Orbscan-Ultrasound r=0,8819 and Pentacam-Ultrasound r=0,9633. For 3<sup>rd</sup> stage Orbscan-Pentacam had Correlation coefficient r=0,8317, Orbscan-Ultrasound r=0,8457 and Pentacam-Ultrasound r=0,9633. For 4<sup>th</sup> stage Orbscan-Pentacam had Correlation coefficient r=-0,4655, Orbscan-Ultrasound r=0,3089 and Pentacam-Ultrasound r=0,9633. In <em>Iatrogenic keratoectasia</em>after refractive surgery Orbscan-Pentacam had Correlation coefficient r=0,9327, Orbscan-Ultrasound r=0,3089 and Pentacam-Ultrasound r=0,9859.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Statistical differences between OrbscanIIz, Pentacam and Ultrasound pachymetry were found for corneal thickness in all stages of keratoconus for the thinnest point measured. Orbscan-Pentacam have statistical significant differences but weak to moderate correlation. Orbscan-Ultasound have also statistical significant differences their correlation is very weak, while Pentacam-Ultrasound have statistical significant differences smaller as the previous but their correlation is very strong at all stages of keratoconus.</p> E. Pateras Ch. Koufala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 7 33 10.9734/or/2020/v13i230163 Comparison of Visual Outcomes between Panretinal Photocoagulation and Panretinal Photocoagulation Plus Intravitreal Bevacizumab in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients Treated at Northen Zonal Hospital https://journalor.com/index.php/OR/article/view/30164 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Diabetic retinopathy is one of the rigorous microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus is the significant cause of visual impairment and consequently blindness affecting about 36% of the diabetic population. Diabetic macular edema (DME) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are two prime manifestations of DR that are responsible for visual morbidity. The basis of the treatment in PDR is Laser photocoagulation as accomplished by Diabetic retinopathy treatment study (DRS) and early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) for the last two decades. The dawn of intravitreal anti-VEGF agents has revolutionized the management of diabetic eye disease for more than the last decade. The aim of the study is to compare the visual outcomes of diabetic retinopathy patients between pan-retinal photocoagulation and pan-retinal photocoagulation plus intravitreal Bevacizumab.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A hospital-based cross-section study using medical record information for all DR patients treated by PRP and IVB at the KCMC eye. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A number of 204 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 59.26 (SD=9.6) years; 75.4% were male. Most of the patients 71.1% are from Arusha and Kilimanjaro. Among all, 51% had PRP alone and the duration of Diabetes was 5-10 years in the majority. The mean VA for PRP alone was 0.89 (SD=0.89) before treatment while it was 1 (SD=0.99) in PRP plus Bevacizumab. At 3 months after treatment VA for PRP alone was 0.947 (SD=0.93) and 0.96 (SD=1.01) for PRP plus Bevacizumab. The mean difference was not statistically significant. VA improved by 49% and it deteriorated by 27.7%. The majority had early proliferated DR 49.7%, 42.8% high risk proliferated DR and advanced proliferated DR was 7.5%. The complications were found in 5.6% and they included: vitreous hemorrhage (4.6%) and retinal detachment (1%) in PRP plus Bevacizumab and none in PRP alone.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>With respect to this study there is no significant difference in visual outcome for PRP alone and PRP plus injection Bevacizumab, though PRP plus Bevacizumab in treatment of DR had better visual outcome over PRP alone. PRP plus injection Bevacizumab is associated with a higher and early rate of regression of active NVs than PRP alone in patients with PDR. Further studies will be needed to determine whether IVB plus PRP is a satisfactory treatment for the prevention of vision-threatening complications such as vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment.</p> Filemon Darabe William Makupa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 34 43 10.9734/or/2020/v13i230164 Factors Associated and Management of Functional Failure after External Dacryocystorhinostomy at Zonal Tertiary Hospital https://journalor.com/index.php/OR/article/view/30165 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To determine factors associated and management of functional failure after Dacryocystorhinostomy among patients attending the eye department at KCMC hospital Moshi Kilimanjaro, from January 2007 to July 2018.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A retrospective cross-section hospital-based study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Conducted at Eye Department Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre Hospital, between August 2018 and August 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We recruited 184 patients who underwent external DCR surgery from January 2007 to July 2018. The analysis was done using STATA version 14. Chi-square was used to establish the difference in proportions across groups, multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the associated factors for functional failure. The 95% confidence intervals were constructed; associations were considered to be statistically significant when a P-value was less than 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 184 external DCR done, 37 (20.1%) had functional failure, 174 (94.6%) attained anatomical success while147 (79.9%) attained functional success. Fifty-one (27.4%) of cases had a primary function failure, of this 50% was managed by probing and irrigation. Functional failure was associated with postoperative complications (AOR=10.58 (95% CI: 2.24 - 49.88).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Functional failure after external Dacryocystorhinostomy was 20.1%, the anatomical success of external DCR was 94.6% and functional success was 79.9% in our study. The strongest associated factors for functional failure were a post-operative complication and increased age. Therefore, careful post-operative follow-up after DCR procedure should be emphasized to lacrimal surgeons. On the other hand, external DCR remains the surgical management options with good success.</p> Daniel Mashamba Edwin Musheiguza William Makupa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-27 2020-07-27 44 53 10.9734/or/2020/v13i230165