Open Access Case study

Calcinosis Cutis of the Eyelid

Thanuja G. Pradeep, Praveen Kumar, B. Lakshmi

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 76-79
DOI: 10.9734/OR/2015/14907

We report a case of calcinosis cutis presenting in the upper eyelid. These cases can mimic various conditions of the eyelid and diagnosis is usually done histopathologically. Though they are common occurrence for dermatologists, there are very few cases reported in the ophthalmic literature. They need to be recognised and differentiated from a more dangerous metastatic and dystrophic varieties as simple excision is adequate in the idiopathic type of calcinosis cutis.


Open Access Case study

Anterior Migration of the Encircling Band: A Report of Two Cases

Ziya Ayhan, Gül Arıkan, Aylin Yaman, Ismet Durak, A. Osman Saatci

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 80-84
DOI: 10.9734/OR/2015/15353

Aim: To reiterate the clinical course and management of the cases with anteriorly migrated encircling band. 

Report of the Cases: We describe two patients with the migration of a solid silicone encircling band through the insertions of rectus muscles after the successful retinal detachment surgery (cheesewiring phenomenon). While the first patient had also refractory secondary glaucoma and underwent transscleral diode laser photocoagulation several times, the second patient had high myopia with the axial length of 30.06 mm. In both cases, encircling band was cut without further complication.

Conclusion: Cheesewiring phenomenon can be rarely seen after buckling procedures and retina specialists should be aware of this rare complication and its possible causes to prevent its happening.


Open Access Original Research Article

Child-rated and Parent-rated Quality of Life in Childhood Intermittent Exotropia: Findings from an Observational Cohort Study

Deborah Buck, Nadeem Ali, Peter Tiffin, Robert H. Taylor, Christine J. Powell, Michael P. Clarke

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 59-66
DOI: 10.9734/OR/2015/15246

Purpose: To use the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM) to describe generic quality of life (QOL) in children with intermittent exotropia [X(T)], to examine changes in scores, and to compare scores in children with X(T) to those of age-matched healthy cohorts.

Methods: PedsQLTM was administered to children and parents as part of the UK Improving Outcomes in Intermittent Exotropia (IOXT) study. Excluding 27 children with co-morbidity, PedsQL data was available from 365 parents and 152 children. Paired-samples t-tests examined change in PedsQLTM scores over time. One-sample t-tests and mean differences compared scores between children with X(T) and healthy UK samples.

Results: Mean parent-rated PedsQLTM scores from the X(T) cohort at baseline were: 90.6 (Physical Health), 78.2 (Emotional Functioning), 88.8 (Social Functioning), 83.4 (School/Nursery Functioning), 83.6 (Psychosocial Summary), 86.2 (Total).  Mean baseline child-rated scores were: 78.1 (Physical Health), 76.5 (Emotional Functioning), 73.6 (Social Functioning), 72.2 (School/Nursery Functioning), 74.2 (Psychosocial Summary), 75.5 (Total). X(T) parents rated their child’s QOL similar to healthy children’s parents, except for poorer School/Nursery Functioning in 2-4 year olds. X(T) children rated their QOL significantly better than age-matched healthy children. There were no significant changes over time.

Conclusion: Using the PedsQLTM we were unable to detect significant effects of X(T) on generic QOL. However, evidence for PedsQL’s utility in this condition remains limited without further investigation in larger samples and concurrent control groups. Further qualitative work and consideration of condition-specific measures in UK cohorts are needed before practitioners can better inform parents about psychosocial impacts of X(T).


Open Access Original Research Article

Ishihara Electronic Color Blindness Test: An Evaluation Study

Hatem M. Marey, Noura A. Semary, Sameh S. Mandour

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 67-75
DOI: 10.9734/OR/2015/13618

Purpose: Evaluation of computer based color deficiency test.

Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixty seven volunteers have been checked using both traditional Ishihara plates and a computer diagnosis program using LCD monitors.

Results: The prevalence of red green color vision deficiency (RG-CVD) was 8.75% of male participants, no female participants were diagnosed, both in the paper based test, and in the computer based test. Computer based test gave 100% sensitivity and 98.78% specificity.

Conclusion: Presenting the computer based color deficiency test software on LCD screen can be used for screening of color vision deficiency with nearly similar sensitivity and specificity to the Ishihara test with the advantage reducing the cost through decreasing required resources over time, and decreasing the time to analyze the results.


Open Access Original Research Article

Visual Training Helps Improve Reading in Dyslexic Children with Abnormal Crowding

Carlo Aleci, Elena Belcastro, Lorenzo Canavese

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 85-94
DOI: 10.9734/OR/2015/15409

Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of visual training aimed at improving the visual function in dyslexic children suffering from increased crowding.

Study Design: Single-masked crossover pilot study.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Turin and the Gradenigo Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Turin, between March and November 2014.

Methodology: 14 reading-impaired children (8-11 years) with increased paracentral crowding underwent a visual training devised to improve reading fluency by reducing lateral masking. Patients were asked to recognize trigrams of letters with different inter-letter spacing displayed at variable eccentricities on both sides of the fixation point (trigram training). Since any visual task chosen as a placebo could show some rehabilitative effect, placebo training was replaced by a period of reading practice, when reading exercises were recommended to be done at home.

Results: After two weeks of training, in the recruited sample reading rate for words increased from 1.88 syl/sec (SD:±0.74) to 2.19 syl/sec (±0.86). Reading rate for non-words improved from 1.13 (±0.39) syl/sec to 1.28 (±0.42) syl/sec. No significant improvement was found after the period of reading practice both at words and non-words. Analysis of variance showed a significant reading exercise x trigram training effect both for words (P= .0004) and non-words (P= .0001) in the recruited sample of disabled readers.

To confirm the ameliorative effect of training (not being involved a placebo), a second, smaller sample has been administered the reading practice before the treatment.

In this second group no substantial change in reading fluency was found after two weeks of reading practice, whereas after the trigram training reading rate improved by 11.8% at words and 29% at non-words despite, probably due to the small size of the second sample, results did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusion: Trigram visuoperceptive training demonstrated to be effective in improving reading rate in dyslexic children suffering from reinforced crowding. The ameliorative effect of the rehabilitation is found to be sharper in patients showing abnormal crowding compared to the non-classified dyslexics trained in a previous study. Interdisciplinary rehabilitative approach of developmental dyslexia should therefore consider also visuoperceptive rehabilitation aimed at normalizing lateral masking.