Open Access Case Report

Retinopathy Associated with Adjuvant Interferon in a Patient with Malignant Melanoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Mahmut Dogan

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i230121

Interferons are kinds of proteins with immuneregulatory, antiviral and anti-proliferative functions. Interferons are widely used worldwide for the treatment of many diseases including cancer, hepatit C and immune mediated disease such as multiple sclerosis. Long-term use of interferons have some side effects. However, interferons have ophthalmologic side effects. Ocular toxicity may occur at any time during treatment. There is no association between the dose or duration of interferon treatment and ocular toxicity. Although visual acuity returns to normal in most patients when interferon is discontinued, vision loss may be permanent.

Open Access Opinion Article

Comparison of Clinical Use of Ocular-surface Disease Index Questionnaire, Tear Film Break-up time, and Schirmer Tests in Diagnosing Dry-eye

Suwarna Suman, Prachi Goyal

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i230125

Aims:  To evaluate and compare the diagnostic values and clinical utility of the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, the tear film break-up time test (TBUT), and the Schirmer’s test in diagnosing dry eye disease in patients presenting with dry eye symptoms.

Study Design: A prospective observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, AIIMS Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. Two-month period between July 2016 and September 2016.

Methodology: We have included 100 patients aged >20 years having foreign body sensations, burning sensations, pain, dryness, blurred vision, photophobia, redness in the study. Routine ophthalmological examination was performed after OSDI questionnaire, followed by TBUT and Schirmer’s test and outcomes were evaluated.

Results: The mean age of 100 participants was 43 ± 15.97years (range 20–78 years). The mean OSDI, TBUT, and Schirmer’s test scores were 58.67± 12.12 (range 30.0–88.9), 5.77 ± 3.49 seconds (range 0–17 seconds), and 09.78 ± 7.93 mm (range 0–32.5 mm), respectively. There was a statistically highly significant inverse correlation between the OSDI and TBUT (r = −0.597, P = <0.0001), statistically significant correlation between TBUT and Schirmer test (r= -0.227, p= 0.023), whereas no significant correlation noted between the OSDI and Schirmer’s test (r= -0.142, p= 0.158). 

Conclusion: The prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) is increasing these days. For early recognition and treatment, we need rapid, reliable and less invasive diagnostic test in daily practice. The OSDI together with the TBUT is less time consuming, easy to perform and can be useful in diagnosis of DED.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Congenital Ocular Anomalies Prevalent in Routine Eye OPD in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Arvind Kumar, Abha Shukla, Dinesh Matoli

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i230122

Aims: Congenital ocular anomalies require treatment, visual rehabilitation and genetic counselling. Goes undetected in neonates and children due to lack of routine eye checkup. Diagnosed later during eye examination or when come for disability certificate.

Study Design: Prospective and observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: We conducted study at tertiary care hospital, over a period of six months (from January 2018 to June 2018).

Methodology: Patients with congenital ocular anomalies irrespective of their age were identified. Findings were confirmed by detailed ocular examination and investigations when required. Whatever best management like correcting refractive error, surgery, low vision aids or rehabilitation was advised. Those having acquired defects giving similar appearance as in congenital anomalies, cases of ocular trauma, infections, with prior surgical intervention were excluded.

Results: Over a period of six months 128 eyes were detected with congenital ocular anomalies. The most common anomalies were microphthalmos, microcornea and iris coloboma seen in 85 eyes. Other congenital anomalies were congenital cataract, nystagmus, anophthalmos, aniridia, congenital glaucoma, Ankyloblepharon, coloboma of disc, congenital esotropia, lid coloboma, congenital ptosis, axenfield anomaly, limbal dermoid.

Conclusion: Patient with congenital ocular anomalies and their parents should be counseled regarding possible current treatment, visual prognosis and genetic counselling regardless of age and time of presentation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Demographic Distribution of Oculoplastic Disorders in Port Harcourt Nigeria

C. S. Ejimadu, N. E. Chinawa, B. Theophilus

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i230123

Aim: To find the age and gender variation in oculoplastic-related disorders in Port Harcourt.

Methods: This study was a hospital-based retrospective study involving retrieval of records of all oculoplastic disorders University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Nigeria. The various ocular disorders in the hospital are routinely entered into an Ophthalmology register from where the data were extracted. Data analysis was performed using United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Epi-Info version 7 software.

Results: The commonest case was Chalazion (32%) followed by Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia (8.9%), Thyroid Eye Disease, Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction both contributing 5.7% each. There were 49 (39.8%) males and 74 (60.2%) females. The male to female ratio was 2:3.The commonest affected age group was 21-30 years (33.3%),followed by 31-40 years(15.5%).The least affected age group were those that were above 70 years which constituted 2.4%.

Conclusion: Female gender and the age group of 21-30 were seen more with oculoplastic conditions probably due to the more sensitivity of females and also of these young adults to cosmetic blemishes posed oculoplastic related cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Recognition and Prevention of Visual Loss Due to Retinopathy of Prematurity in High Risk Twin Infant Pairs: A Case Series with a Multi-specialty Approach

Radha Annamalai, Krishnima Raghu, Meera Mohanakumar, M. Muthayya

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i230124

Aim: This study was performed to determine profile of asymmetry, newer differences in postnatal risk factors and effects of current laser treatment on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) progression in preterm twin pairs.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 250 infants (125 twin pairs) of premature birth, low weight or other infant risk factors at Sri Ramachandra hospital, a tertiary referral hospital in Chennai, India from May 2017 to April 2019. Indirect ophthalmoscopy with scleral indentation was performed on all babies under continuous monitoring of oxygen saturation using pulseoximeter in the presence of a neonatologist. Examination and analysis was done for stage and zone of ROP, systemic causes, spontaneous regression and need for treatment.

Results: Among 125 twin pairs, 38twin pairs (30%) had ROP which was asymmetrical in 27% and symmetrical in 4%. Disparity developed before 35 weeks when both twins had ROP. Two stage differences occurred in 84%. Both were statistically significant (p<0.05). Spontaneous regression occurred after 35 weeks and majority regressed by 40 weeks. Laser treatment was required in 36%. Risk factors were most commonly respiratory distress, patent ductus arteriosus, apnoea, variation of birth weight and gestational age.

Conclusion: Smaller gestational age is a good predictor of variability in progression of vascularization and along with birth weight and weight gain contributes to asymmetry. Respiratory distress has the highest risk. It is important to screen and follow up all twins irrespective of initial examination status and normal appearing retina in one twin, as transition from one stage to another can occur. Early detection with timely treatment will prevent irreversible visual loss.