Open Access Original Research Article

Ophthalmic Findings and Their Effect on Visual Function in Persons with Albinism in Southern Nigeria

Ihunanya Ibanga, Chinyere N. Pedro-Egbe, Alfred A. Onua, Bassey Fiebai

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v10i130095

Aim: To determine the pattern of ocular disorders in persons with albinism and how they affect visual function.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over a five-month period on persons living with albinism in Southern Nigeria. The study participants were randomly selected during the monthly meetings of a support group known as The Albinism Foundation (TAF).Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were assessed using the ETDRS visual acuity chart and Pelli Robson contrast sensitivity test chart. A comprehensive eye examination including dilated fundoscopy was also carried out to determine other ocular disorders. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22 and statistical significance was set at a p-value ≤ 0.05.

Results: A total of 116 PWA (232 eyes) were examined. There were 44 (37.9%) males and 72 (62.1%) females. The age of the study subjects ranged from 5 to 56 years. Most eyes were visually impaired for both distance (n=228; 98.3%) and near vision (n= 224; 96.6%). Contrast sensitivity in most eyes (n=138; 59.5%) was subnormal. With refraction and Low Vision Aid (LVA), there was significant improvement of the mean VA by 2-3 acuity lines and 6 acuity lines respectively (p=0.000). All the examined eyes had fundus hypo-pigmentation, 91.4% (n=212) had iris trans-illumination, 86.2% (n=200) had nystagmus, and 34.4% (n=80) had strabismus. Nystagmus, strabismus and iris trans-illumination significantly (p=0.00) reduced visual acuity and contrast sensitivity.

Conclusion: Most study participants had reduced distance visual acuity and contrast sensitivity but with correction there was a significant improvement in vision. The presence of nystagmus, strabismus and iris trans-illumination were observed to contribute to the poor vision experienced by most persons living with albinism. Hence, early optical intervention and counselling is important in improving the quality of living of persons with albinism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Effect of Trabeculectomy in Controlling Intraocular Pressure in Pseudo-Exfoliaiton and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Patients

S. Kavuncu, H. H. Erbil

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v10i130096

Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of the trabeculectomy in controlling intraocular pressure in patients with primary open-angle and pseudo-exfoliation glaucoma.

Materials and Methods: The medical data of a sum of 69 eyes of which 36 (52,2%) with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and 33 (47,8%) with pseudo-exfoliation (PEG), who have medically uncontrolled glaucoma and had undergone primary trabeculectomy in Göztepe Education and Research Hospital were evaluated in this retrospective study. Postoperatively, data at the first day, at the first month, and at the last examination evaluated in the study. Success of the surgery is defined as measurement of intraocular pressure under 21 mmHg with (incomplete success) or without (complete success) additional medications following the end of the first year follow-up examinations.

Results: POAG group consists of 36 patients of which 16 male, 20 female and PEG group consists of 33 patients of which 21 male and 12 female. The mean age was 67.2±9.1 (42-80) years in POAG group and 70.7±6.6 (55-80) years in PEG group. There was no statistically significant difference between POAG and PEG groups in visual acuity, mean intraocular pressure, c/d ratio and the number of antiglaucomatous medications preoperatively and postoperatively (p>0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in groups between post and preoperative values in visual acuity, mean intraocular pressure, c/d ratio and the number of antiglaucomatous medications (p<0.05) Success of the trabeculectomy was 41,7% (complete success), 41,7% (incomplete success) and remaining 16,6% was unsuccessful, in POAG group and success rate in PEG group was 51.5%, 27,3% and 21,2% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.738).

Conclusion: Trabeculectomy is an effective surgery in lowering intraocular pressure in both of the study groups equally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Eye Disorders at the Ophthalmology Clinic of a Tertiary Health Facility in the Niger-delta Region: The Implications for Preventive Ophthalmology

Ireju O. Chukwuka, Chinyere N. Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Sotonibi A. H. Cookey, Alfred A. Onua, Damiete Elaine Briggs

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v10i130097

Objective: To determine the pattern of eye disorders among Nigerian Niger Delta region residents as a basis for preventive ophthalmology.

Methodology: This study was a retrospective study involving an eleven-year cumulative review of clinical records from the Ophthalmology Clinic of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Data on eye disorders were retrieved from the Ophthalmology Clinic records and manually entered into a computer-spread sheet. Double entry check was performed to avoid errors in computer entry. The respective eye disorders from the records were summed to obtain the absolute and relative cumulative frequencies and appropriately presented using horizontal bar chart. Data analyzed with United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Epi-Info version 7 software.

Results: The cumulative total record from the Ophthalmology Clinic was 55,109 from a total of 41 eye disorders. The absolute and relative frequencies of the identified eye disorders from the clinic are presented in horizontal bar chart. The top five ocular disorders were glaucoma (26.97%), refractive error (26.06%), cataract (10.60%), allergic conjunctivitis (9.31%) and bacterial conjunctivitis (5.02%) while the least common cases seen include pan uveitis (0.08%), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (0.07%) pingueculum (0.07%), painful blind eye (0.06%) and orbital cellulitis (0.05%). The anterior segment subspecialty (34.76%) accounted for majority of cases seen followed by glaucoma subspecialty (26.97%), oculoplasty (4.04%), vitreo-retinal (2.4%), paediatric (0.74%), neuro-ophthalmology (0.7%). Cases which cut-across more than one subspecialty group accounted for 28.19%.

Conclusion: The commonest eye disorders identified in this study are among the major causes of avoidable blindness in developing countries including Nigeria. To reduce the burden of blindness and visual impairment would involve a concerted effort to tackle these disorders especially by developing the various ophthalmic subspecialties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Intraocular Pressure and Anterior Chamber Depth after Phacoemulsification in Non-Glaucomatous Patients

Mona Abdallah, Omar M. Ali, Abd El-Nasser A. Mohammad, Wael Soliman

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v10i130098

Aims: To evaluate changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) after uneventful phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.

Study Design: Prospective interventional comparative study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, Assuit University Hospital, Assuit, Egypt between September 2016 and October 2017.

Methodology: 100 Patients with visually significant cataract (39 males (39%) and 61 females (61%). All patients underwent uneventful phacoemulsification. Intraocular pressure and ACD were measured preoperatively by using Goldmann applanation tonometer and Ultrasonography  respectively, and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively.

Results: The postoperative ACD was higher than the preoperative value by 0.26± 0.06 mm at 1 week, 0.45±0.06 mm at 1 month, and 0.59±0.08 mm at 3 months postoperatively (P=.000). P < 0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. The IOP at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively was lower than the preoperative value by 1.03±0.3 mmHg, 1.52±0.46 mmHg, and 2.14±0.62 mmHg, respectively (P=.001).

Conclusion: This study revealed that there was a decrease in IOP and increase in ACD after cataract extraction by phacoemulsification. Patients with ocular hypertension, open-angle glaucoma, and narrow-angle glaucoma may benefit from cataract extraction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Road Traffic Accidents and Visual Status of Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers in an Urban Area of Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

G. F. Pepple, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v10i130099

Aim: To determine the relationship between visual status of commercial motor vehicle drivers and road traffic accidents (RTA) in an urban area of Niger Delta, Nigeria.

Methods: Four hundred commercial vehicle drivers in the 10 major motor parks of Port Harcourt LGA were interviewed and examined in this study. A structured questionnaire on demographic characteristics, driving and ocular history was administered. Ocular examination included visual acuity, refraction, visual field, tonometry, colour vision test and ophthalmoscopy. The data collected was entered into computer using EPI-INFO statistical software for analysis. Ethical approval was obtained from relevant authorities.  

Results: Seven drivers (1.8%) out of 400 drivers examined were visually impaired. There were 14 cases (3.5%) of monocular blindness. Eighteen (4.5%) were colour blind (p>0.05) while 16 (4%) had visual field defects (p>0.05). One hundred and eighty two (45.5%) drivers had been involved in RTA, out of which 2 drivers (1.1%) were visually impaired (p>0.05). Cataract found in 37 cases was the leading cause of visual impairment (42.8%). Other common ocular problems were pterygium (26.7%), presbyopia (22.9%), glaucoma (11.5%), and refractive error (8.4%).There was no statistical significant association between the ocular findings and RTA

Conclusion: Only a few of those involved in RTA were actually visually impaired. Therefore, other factors may have been responsible for the majority of the cases of the RTAs in this study necessitating the need for more research.