Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern and Prevalence of Color Vision Disorders amongst Secondary School Students in Rivers State, Nigeria

Ibifubara N. Aprioku, Elizabeth A. Awoyesuku

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v10i430110

Aims: To determine the prevalence and pattern of color vision disorders (CVD) amongst secondary school students in Rivers State.

Study Design: A community based descriptive cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital from the 20th of January to the 30th of April 2014.

Methodology: A community based descriptive cross sectional study where study subjects were selected using multi-stage random sampling technique with inclusion criteria of consenting students with visual acuity >6/24. Ethical clearance for test was obtained from institution. Socio-demographic data obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. A comprehensive ocular examination was done and color vision assessed using the Ishihara 24 plate 2009 edition and the Farnsworth Munsell D 15 test for those who failed the Ishihara test. The prevalence of color vision disorder was determined by those that failed the Ishihara test.

Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 21. Mean and standard deviations were determined for age. The age groups gender, other demographic distribution of the subjects amongst other was presented using frequency tables and charts.

Statistical significance was put at p ≤ 0.05.

Results: 1000 students were studied which consisted of four hundred and ninety five males (n=495; 49.4%) and five hundred and six females (n=506; 50.6%), with a male female ratio of 1:1.02. Mean age of subjects was 14.3±1.8 years with an age range of 9-20 years. The prevalence of color vision disorders was 2.8% (p-value 0.000) and was higher in males (2.1%) than females (0.7%) (P-value 0.000). Deutan defects were the most predominant (1.8%) compared to protan defects (0.4%) and tritan defects (0.2%).

Conclusion: The study showed a prevalence of color vision disorders of 2.8% with male preponderance among secondary school students. Deutan color vision defects were most prevalent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anthropometric Parameters Affecting Ocular Axial Length in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

I. N. Aprioku, A. O. Adio, C. S. Ejimadu, B. Fiebai

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v10i430112

Aim: To determine the anthropometric parameters affecting ocular axial length in Niger Delta region of Nigeria.    

Methods: This was a community based descriptive study carried out in Port Harcourt City LGA, Nigeria using a multistage random sampling technique. Inclusion criteria were Visual Acuity > 6/18, age greater than 18 years and no history of past ocular surgeries or trauma. Socio demographic data was obtained through an interviewer based proforma and included age, sex and tribe. Anthropometric parameters were measured using a standard height and weight automated scale (SECA 769,220). Ocular examinations done included visual acuity, applanation tonometry, and ophthalmoscopy. Axial length (AL) was measured using Amplitude (A) scan ultrasonography (SONOMED PACSCAN 300AP). Data obtained from one eye of the subjects were analyzed using SPSS (Version 17), and P value was set at ≤ .05.

Results: The study was made up of two hundred and twelve (212) males (45.5%) and two hundred and fifty four (254) females (54.5%) with M: F ratio of 1:1.2 giving a total of four hundred and sixty six (466) subjects. The age range was 18-92 years and mean age of the subjects studied 43.0±14.2 years. Findings revealed mean AL, Height and Weight to be (23.2±1.0 mm), (162.5±9 cm) and (70.5±14.8 kg) respectively. The mean AL was greater in males than females. There was a statistically significant relationship between height and AL in both gender with AL increasing by 0.035mm (p=0.001, r=0.261) with one centimeter change in height in males and 0.025 mm (p=0.001, r=0.2680) in females. There was also a statistically significant (0.009 mm) increase in AL per one kilogram change in weight in females (p=0.0001, r=0.188).

Conclusion: This study noted that there are significant relationships between AL and height and weight respectively. This could add to the data bank for AL in the country and form a basis for identifying deviations from the normal, for further research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Orbital Abscess Drainage Using Intravenous Cannula: Technique and Advantages

Rachid Zerrouk, Adil Elkhoyaali, Wafae Akioud, Mehdi Khmamouche, Fouad Elasri, Karim Reda, Abdelbarre Oubaaz

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v10i430113

The orbital infections are known to be the most frequent primitive orbital pathology.

Rhinosinusitis (RS) is the most common cause of orbital inflammation and infection, especially in the pediatric range. So far, the main orbital complication of RS is the preseptal cellulitis. The dissemination of the infection in the orbital retroseptal area may occur and is considered to be a serious complication requiring urgent diagnosis and treatment. It is usually seen as an orbital (OSPA) subperiosteal abscess adjacent to the infected sinus. The diagnosis of an OSPA is based on clinical evaluation as well as X-ray imaging. The CT scan is the preferred imaging modality for orbital abscess diagnosis.  In most cases of OSPA, the surgery is often indicated and can be conducted by an external method, transnasal endoscopy or a combined method.   In this article, we describe the technique of external drainage using an intravenous cannula (case report of 10 patients) as well as the results obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Structural Defects between Optic Disc and Ganglion Cell Complex in Patients with Glaucoma

Ilias Georgalas, Sergios Taliantzis, Maria Kazaki, Eva Papaconstantinou, Elina Panagiotopoulou, Dimitris Papaconstantinou, Georgios Labiris

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v10i430114

Purpose: To evaluate the agreement of glaucomatous structural defects of the ganglion cell complex (GCC) detected with the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (sdOCT) with the optic nerve head alterations detected with the Heidelberg retina tomography (HRT), of glaucoma patients with ocular hypertension or open angle glaucoma.

Material and Methods: Ninety patients eyes with structural glaucomatous defects were enrolled. All of them underwent imaging examination of GCC with sdOCT and the optic disk with HRT. The Cohen's kappa coefficient of agreement was used.

Results: The agreement between the optic disc and GCC using the parameters of the programs analysis of the HRT, the moorfields regression analysis (MRA) and glaucoma probability score (GPS) was not significant. Instead between MRA and GPS a good agreement was calculated. Significant agreements were found between MRA and GPS on one hand and GCC on the other, considering location and length of the glaucomatous damage, while non significant agreements were found between GPS and GCC for the location and the length of the glaucomatous structural defect.

Conclusions: There is no significance (Please explain further if you are referring to significance in terms of the difference, similarity or agreement) between HRT and sdOCT for the detection of the glaucomatous damage between the optic nerve head and the ganglion cell complex. Instead MRA and GCC detect comparable areas and lengths of the glaucomatous damage. On the other hand GPS records larger deficits relative to MRA and has not a significant agreement with the study of GCC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Endophthalmitis: 5 Years Experience in a Tertiary Eye Care Center Mohammed V Military Medical Training Hospital

Rachid Zerrouk, Yassine Malek, Adil Elkhoyaali, Yassine Mouzari, Karim Reda, Abdelbarre Oubaaz

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v10i430115

Aims: To describe endophthalmitis profile in a tertiary eye care center.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: The ophthalmology department of The Mohammed V Military Medical Training Hospital in Rabat, and covering all patients hospitalized for endogenous and exogenous endophthalmitis between January the 1st 2014, and 31 of December 2018.

Methodology: We included 41 eyes from 41 patients with endophthalmitis.

Results: On a total of 41 eyes, mean age was 53,8 years, with a sex ratio of 1,7. Mean time from onset of symptoms to presentation was 8 +/- 4 days (3 to 32) for postoperative endophthalmitis, and 13 +/- 9 days (2 – 30) for other causes. 98% of patients presented decreased vision, and 88% showed ocular pain. 94% of patients had a visual acuity less than hand motion. Gram positive bacteria were isolated in 76% of the patients.

Conclusion: Our epidemiological, clinical and microbial findings are similar to some occidental and other oriental series.