Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Ocular Disorders in Communities Affected by Crude Oil-spillage in Rivers State

E. A. Awoyesuku, N. E. Chinawa, S. C. Ejimadu

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i330126

Objective: To assess the ocular disorders prevalent in communities affected by crude oil-spillage in Rivers State.

Methods: A cross sectional study involving participants at a one day free eye screening event in Ogu Bolo Local Government area of Rivers State. Participants had comprehensive ocular examination, a pen torch examination of the anterior segment and a direct fundoscopy using the Welch Alllyn Ophthalmoscope, Tonometry was done using the Keeler Pulse air tonometer and those with minor ocular pathologies were treated on site while more chronic disease were referred to a private Ophthalmology group practice.

Statistical Analysis:  Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Descriptive statistics employed mean, median, standard deviation and range values. Frequencies and proportions were used for categorical variables.

Results: The mean age was 46.76±16.03 years while the age range was 1-90 years. The male to female ratio was 1:1.1. About 57.9% and 57.1% of the people had visual acuity better than 6/18 in the right and left eyes respectively. About 19.7% and 20.1% had visual acuity worse than 6/36 in the right and left eyes respectively. The commonest Ocular disorder was Refractive Error (33.6%).This was followed by Presbyopia (17.8%), Cataract (15.1%), Allergic Conjunctivitis (6.5%) while Ocular albinism was least (0.2%).

Conclusion: Ocular anterior segment disorders are prevalent in communities affected by oil spillage and could be due to exposure to petroleum-related chemical irritants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Artificial Tear Drops Influence on High Order Aberrations in Healthy Eye Subjects

Fouad Chraibi, Chaimae Khodriss, Ahmed Bennis, Meriem Abdellaoui, Idriss Andaloussi Benatiya

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i330128

Purpose: To gain more insight into tear film from a functional standpoint, we investigate artificial tear eye drops effect by assessing its influence on high order aberration in healthy eye subjects using a Shack-Hartmann aberrometer.

Methods: An observational case-control study into which 20 young healthy participants were involved. High order aberrations were measured using Shack-Hartmann technology before; 1 hour and 3 hours after instillation of a 0.3% sodium hyaluronate eye drop.

Main measured outcomes were root mean square of high order aberrations in central 5 mm (HOA 5) and in central 6 mm (HOA 6), spherical aberration, vertical coma, horizontal coma, vertical trefoil, horizontal trefoil.

Results: The HOA 5 mean value was 0.21µ before the instillation of artificial tear eye drops and 0.185µ one hour after instillation with a significant statistical difference (p=0.01) and 0.186µ three hours after instillation with no significant statistical difference (p=0.057). No significant statistical difference was found for HOA 6 before and after tear eye drops application.

Vertical coma was the only subset of high order aberrations that was significantly improved from 0.042µ to -0.003µ one hour after tear eye drops application (p=0.04). There was no statistical difference for all the other measurements.

Conclusions: Some high order aberrations could arise from the tear film even in a healthy patient. Vertical coma could be used as a tool to point to the integrity of tear film. For wavefront-guided refractive surgery candidates, high order aberrations should be assessed 1 hour after artificial tear drop instillation.

Open Access Review Article

Management of Conjunctivochalasis

Mahmut Dogan

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i330127

Conjunctivochalasis is defined as a redundant, nonedematous conjunctiva that causes a wide variety of symptoms. Excess conjunctival tissue may not cause any symptoms and may cause some symptoms like subconjunctival hemorrhage, epiphora, dry eye findings and corneal ulceration. Disturbance of tear meniscus, impaired tear distribution and punctal occlusion play a role in the onset of symptoms.

Although the etiopathogenesis of the disease is not yet clearly understood, several theories have been proposed. According to the mechanical theory, age-related mechanical changes in the conjunctiva lead to a chronic obstruction of the lymphatic flow and lymphatic dilatation after this chronic obstruction leads to conjunctivochalasis. According to inflammatory theory, collagenolytic activity increases as a result of inflammation on the ocular surface, causing degeneration of elastic fibers. As a result, degeneration of elastic fibers lead to alterations in the extracellular components of the conjunctival tissue. This inflammatory changes resulting in conjunctival laxity.

Although conjunctivosalasis (CCh) is a clinical diagnosis, it is often overlooked by clinicians. CCh patients are can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Medical and / or surgical treatment is generally needed in symptomatic patients, whereas treatment is not necessary in asymptomatic patients. Medical treatment is the first choice in the treatment of conjunctivochalasis. Artificial tear preparations are widely used in the treatment of CCh due to the deterioration of the tear film layer and dry eye symptoms. In clinical practice, topical anti-inflammatory eye drops are often preferred to reduce ocular surface inflammation. In cases where medical treatment is not sufficient, surgical treatment should be performed.

Today, there are many studies showing that surgical treatment is effective in reducing ocular symptoms and ocular surface damage in patients with CCh and in cases with and without dry eye.The surgical treatment plan should include the loose conjunctival tissue located in the lower part, as well as the excess conjunctival tissue located in the nasal and temporal regions  and aim to correct the tear meniscus along the entire lower lid margin. The most preferred surgical method is crescent excision of CCh tissue and primary suture of the conjunctiva. Other surgical approaches include fibrin glue and amniotic membrane transplantation and direct scleral suture of CCh tissue. Another surgical method is electrocauterization of the conjunctival tissue. It is applied 5 mm away from limbus and there is no harm to fornixes.

Open Access Review Article

Intra Ocular Lens Technology - A Review of Journey from Its Inception

Ragni Kumari, Mrinal Ranjan Srivastava, Pragati Garg, Rajiv Janardhanan

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i330129

Aim: To understand the advancement and development in Intraocular lens.

Introduction: Now a day cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the world. Removing the opaque, cataractous lens and replacing it with an artificial lens to achieve near to normal visual acuity post operatively is not only accepted but by and large a mandatory norm.

Findings: The lenses used for the purpose are called Intra Ocular Lens. Ridley’s brilliance has improved the lives of many millions of people. The gradual improvement in IOL design, first in making flexible lenses, then the ever-improving optical outcomes have meant that vision after cataract surgery has never been better – in the developed world.

Conclusion: We have come a long way in terms of IOL design, but many people with cataracts in rural areas of the developing world, need help to catch up.

Open Access Review Article

Advantages of Surface Ablation in Excimer Laser Surgery

Fouad Chraibi

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i330130

In this article, we review the advantages of corneal laser surface surgery to explain the current trend toward this technique. The excimer laser in corneal surface surgery can be used for two reasons. On the one hand, to correct a refractive error by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and its two variants; Laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) and Epithelial Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (Epi-lasik).

On the other hand, it is used to perform superficial corneal capacities photoablation, among other uses, by Phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK).

PRK is regaining popularity thanks to its better safety profile, mitomycin C usage and improvement of photoablation profiles. Lasek and Epilasik are less frequently performed nowadays.

PTK is an important element in the techniques used to improve visual acuity in a wide range of corneal conditions such as corneal scars, recurrent erosion syndrome and corneal dystrophies.