Open Access Case Report

A Sino-orbitocutaneous Fistula from Local (Native) Tonsillectomy: A Case Report

N. E. Chinawa, M. I. Inoh, E. O. Edet

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i430133

Background: Orbitocutaneous fistula is a known complication of orbital exenteration. Orbitocutaneous fistula arising from a tonsillectomy are quite uncommon. Risk factors for fistula development are sinus diseases, radiotherapy, inadvertent sinus penetration during mid-face and other related surgeries.

Case Report: MS is a 16-year-old girl who presented with swelling of the right side of the face and neck of ten days duration following local tonsillectomy at home. Ocular examination findings showed lid swelling, ecchymosis, pus point in the medial third of the upper lid of the right eye which gave way and formed a sinus tract with the commencement of antibiotics. 

Discussion: Although orbitosinocutaneous fistula is uncommon with tonsillectomy however fistulae may develop following poorly performed procedure by a non-professional who may tamper with the sinuses in the course of surgery. Since asepsis was not observed, there may have also been upward track of infection to the orbit.

Conclusion: Orbitosinocutaneous fistula could be a complication of poorly performed tonsillectomy.

Open Access Case study

Amniotic Membrane Graft in Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigus: A More Conservative Approach

Fouad Chraibi

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i430131

Purpose: To report more conservative management of ocular cicatricial pemphigus (OCP) lesions by performing an initial corneal partial amniotic membrane graft without disturbance of the inflamed conjunctiva.

Methods: A case report of a patient having a stage 3 OCP in his left eye with a corneal ulcer. He was managed by partial corneal amniotic membrane (AM) graft.

Results: The course was favorable with complete corneal ulcer healing and incidentally there was an important regression of associated ocular surface inflammatory signs with a less prominent inferior symblepharon strand.

Conclusion: We propose to manage newly diagnosed patients having advanced ocular cicatricial pemphigus disease with partial corneal amniotic membrane graft before performing radical adnexal surgery with prior immunosuppressive treatment.

Open Access Minireview Article

The History of Modern Ophthalmology in Nigeria: A Synopsis of Institutions, Events and Personalities

Olufemi Oderinlo, Adekunle Olubola Hassan, Tayo Bogunjoko

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i430135

Ophthalmology in Nigeria has developed over the decades with contributions from several personalities. Many events and institutions have served to shape the emergence of good care, from the establishment of ECWA Eye hospital in 1943 as one of the premiere indigenous dedicated Eye Hospitals, to the establishment of the National Eye Centre as well as the University College Hospital Ophthalmology department, the specialty of Ophthalmology has grown to enviable heights. The formation of the Ophthalmological Society of Nigeria in 1969 and the establishment of the National Postgraduate College and The West African College of Surgeons equally stand out as landmark events in History.

The Nigerian National Survey of Blindness and Visual Impairment (2005 to 2007) was the biggest ever survey in Africa, no national level estimates existed in Nigeria before the survey. This gigantic task took more than three years to complete including 30 months of rigorous fieldwork and was only possible because of the special efforts of key individuals. The MTN EYE FOUNDATION Eyeris Program (2013 - 2017) also stands out as a landmark surgical intervention scheme involving 12 states in all geopolitical zones in Nigeria. A total of 18,438 free cataract surgeries were performed, 23,528 eyeglasses and 23,226 ocular medications for ocular allergies, glaucoma and ocular infections were also given free to beneficiaries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Systemic Disease Comorbidities among Ophthalmic Patients in Nigeria: Implications for Preventive Ophthalmology

Ireju Onyinye Chukwuka, Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i430132

Background/Aim: Quite often patients who are refracted in our clinics have other ocular or systemic conditions that may affect the result or delay the issuance of spectacle corrections – for instance poorly controlled diabetic patients may have to wait for months to achieve better control of their condition. These associated comorbidities may require medical or surgical intervention before spectacles are ordered. The aim of this study is to determine the systemic comorbidities that exist in ophthalmic patients attending the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) Eye Clinic in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study in which adult patients who presented in the clinic for change of glasses within the stipulated period of the study were included. They were interviewed to get the relevant information and the data retrieved for each patient included baseline information such as age, gender, unaided visual acuity, visual acuity with their last correction if any as well as co-existing ocular or systemic pathology. The collected data was subsequently analysed using Predictive Analysis Software version 20.

Results: Sixty patients participated in study; both males and females were equally represented. Of this this number, thirty-three patients (55%) had systemic comorbidities .Hypertension was present in 43.3% (n=26) while both hypertension and diabetes mellitus occurred in 10% (n=6) of the participants. Forty percent of those with refractive error had hypertension while about 30% of those with glaucoma were both hypertensive and diabetic.

Conclusion: There is a very high level of systemic comorbidities in adult patients attending this peripheral clinic, and this is a pointer to the high prevalence of these conditions in the larger population.

Open Access Review Article

Review on the Influence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Visual Prognosis of Cataract Surgery

Ragni Kumari, Salai Dhavamathi Janarthanan, Mrinal Ranjan Srivastava, Pragati Garg, Rajiv Janardhanan

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/or/2019/v11i430134

India is deliberated the diabetes hub of the world, and a substantial amount of patients undergoing cataract surgery are diabetic. Developments in surgical techniques and instrumentation of cataract have large enriched the outcomes; but, surgical procedure may not be benign and real in certain entities with pre-existing retinal pathology or inadequate visual potential.. Keeping this in mind, we surveyed the different layers of the eye in managing the cataract in patients with diabetes. The changes in the cornea, intra ocular lens, choroid, and retina are the factors which influenced the visual prognosis of diabetic cataract patients. Better comprehension of different elements in charge of good result of cataract surgery in diabetic patients may direct us in better options in the management of these patients and advancing the outcomes. This review article targets to address diverse features adjoining cataracts in diabetic patients. In anelectronic MEDLINE search, appropriate studies were selected by authors using the relevant keywords.