Open Access Letter to the Editor

Employing the Intraocular Irrigating Solution Containing Moxifloxacin in Cases of Posterior Capsular Rupture

Kazuki Matsuura

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/OR/2017/37000

Introduction: Although the high risk of postoperative endophthalmitis in cases of posterior capsular rupture (PCR) has been well-known, no specific prophylaxis has been proposed. In recent years, the safety of intracameral moxifloxacin (MFLX) has been established. Therefore, we have been performing cataract surgery in cases of PCR using an irrigating solution containing MFLX.

Methods: We retrospectively examined the clinical records of nine patients (nine eyes) who suffered PCR during cataract surgery between 2012 and 2014. Once PCR was confirmed, surgery was continued using an irrigating solution containing MFLX (100-fold dilution: 50µg/ml). We investigated the ocular parameters at 3–12 months postoperatively (6.2 ± 2.4 months).

Results: After surgery, the intraocular pressure was 15.3 ± 2.3 mmHg, the endothelial cell density was 2702 ± 336/mm2, the retinal thickness was 238 ± 12 µm and the corrected visual acuity was 20/25 or greater in all patients. None of the patients developed endophthalmitis or complications related to MFLX administration such as cystoid macular edema (CME) or toxic anterior segment syndrome.

Conclusions: In the present study, no apparent adverse effect of MFLX containing irrigating solution was indicated. Because the minimum inhibitory concentration of MFLX for 90% of bacteria is low and there have been no reports of its retinal toxicity, we believe that the MFLX-containing irrigating solution is a rational choice for treating vitreous contamination following PCR.


Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Trachoma among Primary School Children in Harari Region, Eastern Ethiopia

Nega Assefa, Aklilu Abrham Roba, Tekabe Abdosh Ahmed, Jelalu Kemal Birmeka, Eskindr Demissie Zergaw

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/OR/2017/37212

Introduction: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. It is more common in areas where people are socio-economically deprived. Although trachoma is endemic in 571 districts in Ethiopia, its prevalence has not been studied among school children in Harari Region. 

Objective: To assess the prevalence of trachoma eye infection and factors associated with it among Grades 1-8 schoolchildren in Harari Region, from November 30, 2015 to April 29, 2016. 

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was done on 1722 students selected from four primary schools. Data were collected using WHO simplified trachoma grading scheme and analysed by SPSS Version 16. The factors influencing the outcome variable were identified via Logistic Regression, and predictors through Odds Ratio and the corresponding confidence intervals.

Results: The overall prevalence of trachoma was 1.3% (22/1722) in which 14 had Trachoma Follicular and 8 had both Trachoma Follicular and Trachoma Intense. Unclean face (AOR 3.4, CI 1.01-11.42), no maternal education (AOR 4.324, CI 1.189 to 15.729), family size of >5 (AOR 7.069, CI 2.248 to 22.228), families monthly income of less than 1000 Ethiopian Birr (AOR 5.71, CI 1.643 to 19.823), and solid waste collected by municipality (AOR 12.672, CI 1.289 to 124.57) were associated with trachoma eye infection. 

Conclusion: Both Trachoma Follicular and Trachoma Intense are less prevalent among Grades 1-8 school children in Harari Regional State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detecting Visuoperceptive Defects in Adult Disabled Readers with the TETRA Analyzer™. Normative Data and Test-retest Reliability

Carlo Aleci, Martina Blanc, Lorenzo Canavese

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/OR/2017/37084

Aims: To collect normative data in adult readers with the TETRA Analyzer™, a tool developed to detect the visuoperceptive alterations supposedly involved in dyslexia.

Study Design: Epidemiological study.

Place and Duration of Study: Service of Neuro-Ophthalmology, University of Turin, Italy, between June 2015 and March 2016.

Methodology: We enrolled 95 normal adolescent and adult readers (34 males, 61 females; age 12-26 years), with BCVA 60/60 and satisfying academic achievement. In the recruited subjects three visuoperceptive functions believed to play a major role in reading have been examined with the TETRA Analyzer™. The instrument is made up of three exams suitable to evaluate ocular dominance (Domitest-M), spatial relationship perception (Eidomorphometry), and interocular sensory pattern (Domitest-S). In case one or more of these functions were found abnormal, a fourth exam (REPORT) checks their effective involvement in the reading disability. In addition, retest reliability has been estimated.

Results: The prevalence of strong, stable dominance in the sample was 86.3%; the remaining 13.7% showed dominance instability to a variable degree. Mean spatial relationship anisotropy was 1.32% (±2.5%). The binocular sensory pattern was overall balanced: in fact, almost one third (30.8%) of the sample did not show asymmetry of the visual input. The distribution of the interocular inhibition was weak, with median interocular inhibition index (an index of interocular suppression ranging from 0 to 2) = 0.10 (IQR: 0.3). Reading rate was insensitive to interletter spacing (words: R2=0.12, p=.29; non words: R2=0.01, P=.72). Reliability was overall satisfying in all the exams.

Conclusion: Considering the role impaired visuoperceptive functions can have not only in children but even in adult dyslexics, the collection of normative data, so far only available for school age pupils, has been extended to adolescents and adults, with the aim to allow future investigations in this type of patients.


Open Access Original Research Article

Prevention of Amblyopia in Students of Municipal Public Schools in Teresópolis – Brazil

Pedro H. M. Smolka, João M. Ferreira, Martha A. C. A. Pinho, Gabriel B. Affonso, Giovanna M. Smolka, Hugo R. B. Costa, Erika C. O. Naliato

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/OR/2017/37046

Aim: To screen amblyopia in children aged five to nine attending public schools in the city of Teresópolis – Brazil.

Place and Duration of Study: Public schools in the city of Teresópolis – Brazil, from May to September 2016.

Methodology: This study consisted of a cross-sectional evaluation of 106 children (60 boys, 46 girls; age range 5-9 years), using the Snellen Chart to screen amblyopia. Those with a positive screening were referred to an ophthalmologist for diagnostic confirmation and treatment, which included the provision of free glasses.  

Results: Thirty-six children (33.9%) presented positive screenings for amblyopia and were referred for an ophthalmologist. However, only 1/3 of the children with positive screening for amblyopia sought the specialist; in all the 12 cases that were checked by the ophthalmologist, the diagnosis of amblyopia was confirmed and corrective glasses were provided.

Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of amblyopia found in the children studied, the authors suggest this simple and inexpensive screening test be done regularly in children and emphasize the importance of appropriate referral and treatment for those with positive screening.


Open Access Original Research Article

Is Online Medical Information an Option to Effective Patient Counselling?

Mehul Shah, Shreya Shah, Saurabh Shah

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/OR/2017/37449

Aim: To assess the effects of internet search on patient knowledge regarding ocular conditions, its effectiveness comparable to counselling which considered to be gold standard.

Methods: We enrolled consecutive patients freshly diagnosed for glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. We randomized all patients in two groups Internet and Counselling Groups. The patients were asked to fill in a pre- tested questionnaire. One group was given pre-tested keywords for search on Internet and other group was counselled. On next visit, the patients were asked to fill the same questionnaire. All answers were documented in the form of numerical score and studied stastically. Data was analysed using frequency and cross tabulation p value <0.05 considered as significant.

Results: We enrolled 123 individuals including 84(68.3%) males, 39 (31%) females having mean age 58+/-13.3. When we compared pre- and post-intervention scores we found significant difference in total as well as in individual groups. (p=0.040) When we compared we did not find any stastically significant difference amongst two groups (p=0.341).

Conclusion: Internet Search is effective tool for public health education. It is as effective as counselling for this purpose.