Open Access Short Research Article

Vitreomacular Interphase Disorders in Eyes with Proliferative Sickle Cell Retinopathy

Olufemi Oderinlo, Adekunle Hassan, Ogugua Okonkwo

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/or/2020/v12i330146

Purpose: To describe the type of vitreomacula interface disorders (VID) seen in eyes with proliferative sickle cell retinopathy, based on optical coherence tomography findings and assess their effect on visual acuity.

Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective observational case study. Clinical records and imaging records were reviewed to identify all PSR cases with Fourier-domain OCT imaging showing VIDs at a single academic private-practice office location from January 1, 2015 to July 30, 2018. Identified VIDs were classified as Vitreomacula Adhesions, Vitreomacula Traction, Lamellar Macula Hole, Full Thickness Macula Hole, Epiretina membranes and Macula Pseudohole.

Results: Out of a total of 98 eyes of 78 patients with PSR evaluated, only 12 eyes had VIDs; this represents 12.2% of PSR patients. There were 3 (25%) males and 9 (75%) females with ages ranging from 32 to 64 years, a mean age of 45.42yrs [SD 10.27], 9(75%) right eyes were affected. In 9(75%) patients their genotype was SC and 3(25%) with genotype SS. PSR was at stage 3 in 6(50%) eyes, while the remaining 6(eyes) were at stage 4. The most common VID was epiretina membranes (ERM) seen in 7(58.3%)eyes, in 2(16.6%) ERMs eyes were associated with Lamella Macula Holes and in 1(8.3%) the ERM was associated with a pseudohole. VMAs were seen in in 3(25%) eyes and FTMHs were seen in 2 (16.6%) eyes. ERMs were thus seen in 7.1% (7 eyes) of the 98 eyes with PSR that were considered.

Conclusion: Epiretina membranes with or without macular holes are the most common vitreomacular interphase disorders seen in our series of eyes with proliferative sickle cell retinopathy. They were associated with mild to moderate impairment in visual acuity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Long Term Study of Cataract Surgery and Complications in Patients with Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome in Garhwal Himalayan Region

Achyut N. Pandey, Parul Singh, Manoj Tyagi

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 9-13
DOI: 10.9734/or/2020/v12i330147

The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and intraoperative difficulties associated with pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome at a tertiary eye care center in Garhwal Himalayan region. Methods: This study included patients scheduled for cataract surgery who were diagnosed with PXF syndrome. All patients had gone through a complete ophthalmologic evaluation, including slit-lamp examination, tonometry, gonioscopy, and ophthalmoscopy prior to the surgery. Cataract surgeries were done by a single surgeon who reported the intra-operative difficulties. Results: In total, 424 phakic eyes of 934 patients were evaluated, 126 of whom (22.1%) were diagnosed with PXF syndrome. Most eyes (n = 81, 35.8%) with PXF syndrome were ≥81 years old. Eighty-six eyes (38.1%) had bilateral involvement, whereas 70 (30.9%) had right or left eye involvement. Further, PXF material was distributed on the iris, pupil, and lens in 70 eyes (30.9%) and on the pupillary margin in 36 eyes (15.9%). The mean pupillary dilation was 5.1 (±1.4) mm in patients with PXF syndrome compared with 7.2 (±1.6) mm in those without it (P = 0.03). Grade VI cataract was observed in 93 eyes (41.2%) and hypermature cataract was the most commonly observed cataract stage. Twenty-one eyes (9.3%) had increased intraocular pressure. Intraoperative difficulties were encountered in 62 eyes (27.4%) with poor pupillary dilation being the most common problem (32 eyes, 14.2%), followed by zonular dehiscence (18 eyes, 8%). Conclusion: This hospital-based study showed that PXF syndrome is common in rural population of Garhwal region and that the intraoperative complication rate in these patients is high. Surgeons should be aware of the potential complications of cataract procedures in patients with PEX. Caution should be taken at every stage of the surgery to prevent these complications, and surgeons should be knowledgeable and skilful in complication management should they arise.

Open Access Original Research Article

Visual Outcome of Cataract Surgery Complications Repair at a Cataract Training Centre of Western Central India

Mehul A. Shah, Shreya M. Shah, Ashit Desai

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 14-20
DOI: 10.9734/or/2020/v12i330148

Introduction: Cataract is a major cause of blindness, but it can be eliminated by surgical management. The visual outcome depends upon the competency of the surgeon, and quality training can contribute to the creation of such skilled surgeons.

Methods: This is a retrospective study in which we enrolled all the cataract cases operated between 2004 and 2018, any complication and its repair reported in pretested online form, and all documented post-operative data. All these data were exported to excel sheet from EMR and analysed using SPSS22.

Results: Our cohort involved 2998(2.49%) cases out of 120,000 total cataract operated cases. Out of complications documented for45.5% did not require surgical intervention, 30% eyes required secondary implant and remaining cases required other surgeries. Intervention medical and surgical has made significant difference in visual outcome. (p=0.002) 43.9% complications reported during stage of cortical clean up.

Primary surgery and trainee categories did not cause significant differences in the visual outcome.

Conclusion: Cataract surgeries done by trainee surgeons caused complications at various stages. However, interventions by vitreo-retinal surgeons led to a significant difference in the final visual outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Caffeine on Contrast Sensitivity among Young Adults of Abia State University

Anyatonwu Princewill Obinna, Chikezie Grand Ihesiulor, Ubani Ahanna Udo

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/or/2020/v12i330149

Introduction: Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance. Unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in the world. Several experts suggest that moderate use of caffeine (300 mg or equivalent to 3 cups or less to regular size cups of coffee per day) is safe and so not likely to cause health issues. Intake of caffeine has been suggested to affect the visual system. This study examined the effect of consumption of caffeine on contrast sensitivity of the eye among young adults of Abia State University students within the age range of 17-30 yrs.

Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design and was carried out within the confinement of Abia State University Eye Clinic. A total of 100 young adults consisting of an equal number of males and females were measured using the Rabin’s contrast sensitivity at baseline, 30 mins until 120 mins. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Chi-square statistical analysis was used to analyze statistically the research hypotheses at 95% level of significance.

Results: The findings of this study reveal that mean contrast sensitivity values for 16 to less than 20 years old were 1.70 at baseline and increased to 1.79, 1.89, 1.93 except at 120 minutes post-ingestion of caffeine. In males and females, contrast sensitivity increased by 1.57%, 3.7%, 5.3% and 10.7%, 20.7% 23.3% respectively. At 95% confidence level, caffeine ingestion had a significant effect on contrast sensitivity for both males (4.79) and females (5.8).

Conclusion: This study depicts that the ingestion of caffeine affects or increases contrast sensitivity in both males and females although this effect is short-lived.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Study the Pattern of Ocular Trauma and Predict-ing the Final Visual Outcome in Paediatric Ocular Trauma Cases in a Tertiary Eye Care Centre of Eastern India

Rahul Prasad, Deepti Tiwari, Bibha Kumari, Antabha Bandyopadhyay

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 29-33
DOI: 10.9734/or/2020/v12i330150

Aim: The study was done to identify causes, demographic and clinical profile and to evaluate factors influencing visual outcome in paediatric ocular trauma patients (up to 15 years).

Study Design: It was a prospective interventional study

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was done in a tertiary eye care centre of eastern India between January 2019 to February 2020.

Materials and Methods: The study was done from January 2019 to February 2020 on children between 1 year to 15 years of either sex with ocular trauma. Demographic details, cause of injury, presenting visual acuity were noted. Follow up was done till 2 months after carrying out appropriate intervention.

Results: A total 106 eyes of 106 patients were evaluated and it was observed that children who were of 7 yrs and above were more affected (67%) than below (33%). Male children (59%) were more affected than female (41%).  Injuries to Adnexa were found in 52% eyes, 40% injury cases were due to closed injury while open globe injuries comprised 8% of total cases. Common causes of injury were found to be mainly blunt objects and projectile objects. Maximum correction in visual acuity (VA) of more than 6/18 was achieved in 66% eyes, 6/18-6/60 in 11% eyes, <6/60-counting finger at 1 meter in 10% eyes. 

Conclusion: Late reporting, poor initial visual acuity, involvement of posterior segment, and no immediate primary intervention at time of injury adversely affect visual outcome. Early intervention and globe salvaging repair should be done in all eyes of trauma.