Open Access Case study

The Effect of Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking on Higher Order Aberrations in Keratoconus

Ahmed M. Moharam, Mohammad M. Khater, Hisham A. Saad, Khaled A. Nagy

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/or/2021/v14i230187

Purpose: To assess the changes in ocular high order aberrations after collagen cross linking for keratoconus.

Patients and Methods: This study included 30 eyes with confirmed KCN. Baseline evaluation focused on: UDVA and BSCVA using logMAR notation, MRSE, corneal topography using Orbscan IIZ and wave-front aberrometry using Zywave II. CXL was performed per ‘Dresden protocol’ through a 30-minutes exposure to 370 nm UVA with an irradiance of 3 mW/cm 2. Patients had comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation after 6 months with special attention to: UDVA, BSCVA, MRSE, corneal topography and wave-front aberrometry changes. 

Results: The mean age was 25.5±5.84 (20:31) years. After 6 months, there was a significant decrease in corneal thickness from 493.2± 24.17µ to 486.7±24.26µ (P<0.05) and a significant decrease in K max from 47.4±1.17D to 46.1±1.17D (P<0.05). BSCVA improved from preoperative value (0.00:0.5 logMAR (median 0.3)) to 6 months’ value (0.1:1.00 logMAR (median 0.2) (P <0.05). Preoperative MRSE was -7.25: -0.5D (median -2.85D) and at 6 months was -6.25: -0.5D (median - 2.125D) (P<0.05). A significant correlation was found at 6 months between changes in both BSCVA and: K max (P<0.001), corneal thickness (P<0.05), vertical coma (P<0.001) and trefoil (P<0.001). 

Conclusions: Improvement in HOA was detected after CXL for KCN. The changes in total, vertical coma and vertical trefoil aberrations were significantly correlated with postoperative improvement in BSCVA. Thus, improvement in HOA profile after CXL is one of the explanations of improvement in visual function after CXL in KCN.

Open Access Short Research Article

Efficacy of Laser Photocoagulation for Type 1 Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia: A Retrospective Study

Hirofumi Kono, Katsuhiko Yokoyama, Daiji Kishi, Kenichi Kimoto, Toshiaki Kubota

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/or/2021/v14i230188

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser photocoagulation for type 1 idiopathic macular telangiectasia (MacTel).

Study Design: Retrospective case series

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, Oita University Hospital during the period from 2004 to 2013.

Patients and Methods: Six eyes of 6 patients with type 1 MacTel diagnosed consecutively in the Oita University Hospital during the period from 2004 to 2013 were studied. They showed macular edema and their visual acuity were deteriorated due to leakage from the aneurysms. Four patients were male and two were female with an average age of 64 years (range: 41 to 74 years). Informed consent was obtained from each patient and the laser photocoagulation was applied to leaky aneurysms in all eyes. The central macular thickness (CMT) was measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Mean follow up period was 44 months (range: 24 - 63 months). 

Results: Mean visual acuity significantly increased from logMAR 0.25±0.27 at baseline to logMAR 0.11±0.14 (P<0.05) at the last visit. Visual acuity improved more than 0.2 logMAR in five eyes and was stable (gain or loss of < 0.3 logMAR) in one eye. Mean central macular thickness significantly decreased from 454±181 μm at baseline to 231±67 μm (P<0.05) at the last visit. Macular edema was not detected by OCT inany patients at the last visit.

Conclusion: In type I MacTel, laser photocoagulation may achieve a visual improvement and normalize the central macular thickness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Glaucoma in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria

C. O. Adeoti, E. A. Abioye Kuteyi, B. V. Olomola, O. Adejumo

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 34-40
DOI: 10.9734/or/2021/v14i230190

Purpose: The commonest type of glaucoma called chronic open angle glaucoma is a silent disease and patients are usually diagnosed late in the disease. Public awareness programs must be actively done to enable a reduction of late detection of the disease and level of awareness must be assessed regularly to appraise the programs. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness of the people following the several annual glaucoma week programs we held in the state.

Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done in Osogbo local Government Area (LGA) over six months to assess the awareness of glaucoma following a five-year screening and public health education on glaucoma during the annual World glaucoma week in the state. The interviewer-assisted questionnaire was administered to 279 participants. Obtained data included demography such as age, sex, level of education, occupation, religion, state of origin, knowledge of glaucoma and its treatment, family history of glaucoma and so on.

The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Descriptive statistics was used to analyze demographic data, and cross-tabulations with chi-square were used in comparing variables. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.

Results: Two hundred and seventy-nine people were involved in the study. Many, 192 (68.8%) were aware of glaucoma. Thirty-nine participants (14.0%) had a family history of glaucoma and 63 (22.6%) felt the cause of glaucoma is an act of God. Two hundred and one (72.0%) had tertiary education. Tertiary education was found to be a statistically significant factor associated with glaucoma. Thirty-three (84.6%) of the 39 participants that had a positive family history of glaucoma were aware of glaucoma blindness. Out of participants that claimed to know how to treat glaucoma, eight (5.3%) felt it should be conservatively managed and nothing should be used.

Conclusion: The World glaucoma week has yielded results but more efforts must be put in place to increase awareness and knowledge of the populace on the nature of glaucoma. Tertiary education is an important factor in glaucoma awareness. The government must ensure everyone is educated up to tertiary level. Glaucoma patients and their acquaintances may be used in increasing awareness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Some Biochemical Parameters in Vitreous Humor of Rabbits Exposed to Sodium Cyanide

B. I. Elleh, E. S. Bartimaeus, F. U. Igwe, D. G. Tamuno-Emine, E. S. Agoro

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 41-47
DOI: 10.9734/or/2021/v14i230191

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess some biochemical parameters in the vitreous humor of Rabbits exposed to sodium cyanide.

Study Design: This study is an interventional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Animal House, Applied and Environmental Biology Department, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, between April 2020 and November 2020.

Methodology: A total of twelve (12) rabbits as indicated by Mead’s formula constituted the sample size. The study was divided into three groups including the control. 1 mg/kg sodium cyanide was administered to the rabbits orally in group one and vitreous humor was collected using standard procedure after thirty minutes. In group two the rabbits were put to death mechanically and 1 mg/kg sodium cyanide was administered to the rabbits after thirty minutes, vitreous humor was collected after thirty minutes using standard procedure. The rabbits in group three, control group, were put to death mechanically and nothing was given to the rabbits, then after thirty minutes vitreous humor was collected using standard procedure. Biochemical parameters investigated included vitreous glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total proteins (TP), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences between groups were computed using Graph pad prism 7.0 version developed by Graph pad software, San Siago, Califonia, USA. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significance between groups was taken at p<.05.

Results: Vitreous biochemical results showed significant (p<.05) increase in levels of TC, LDL-C, AST, ALT, TB and CB in rabbits given 1 mg/kg sodium cyanide compared to control. Significant (p<.05) decrease in levels of glucose, TP and ALB were also observed. This study also revealed that there was no significant (p<.05) difference in biochemical results of rabbits given 1 mg/kg sodium cyanide thirty minutes after they were put to death mechanically compared to the control. It can be concluded that a lethal dose of sodium cyanide (1 mg/kg) may lead to alterations in vitreous biochemical parameters and this may enhance death differentiation due to sodium cyanide poisoning and other causes of death for example mechanical death.   

Conclusion: The findings of this study support a central role for vitreous humor biochemistry in many postmortem forensic and pathological evaluations and it could also be used for death differentiation in sodium cyanide poisoning.

Open Access Review Article

Opportunities to Topically Reduce Intraocular Pressure in Glaucoma

Ognjenka Rahić, Amina Tucak, Merima Sirbubalo, Lamija Hindija, Jasmina Hadžiabdić, Edina Vranić

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 17-33
DOI: 10.9734/or/2021/v14i230189

Since glaucoma is a serious health problem, numerous therapeutics are being developed to reduce Intraocular Pressure (IOP) as the only modifiable factor of all glaucoma symptoms. IOP-lowering agents are divided into six groups, each of which has a specific mechanism of action and side effects, which are the focus of this article and are explained in detail. All the mentioned agents are formulated as eye drops. However, as conventional topical eye drops have significant disadvantages, of which poor bioavailability and patient noncompliance are the main, novel approaches to designing their drug delivery systems were used and briefly presented in this review.