Open Access Case study

Primary Orbital Lymphoma – A Rare Challenging Diagnostic Entity

Nisha Marwah, Niti Dalal, Manali Satiza, Sunita Singh

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 18-21
DOI: 10.9734/or/2020/v13i430174

The diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorder of orbit is quite challenging as both Pseudolymphomas and Non‑Hodgkin’s lymphomas can occur in orbit. Primary orbital lymphoma is a rare entity comprising of 1-2% of Non‑Hodgkin’s lymphoma, majority of them are B‑cell type. It is a slow growing tumor. It presents in the age group of 50–70 years, with a slight female preponderance. Proptosis is the most common presentation. We, herein, report a case of 48 years old male presenting with right non-axial proptosis, watering of eye, blurring of vision and redness for the last 9 months. After thorough clinical and radiological evaluation, a biopsy was taken for histopathological examination. A primary diagnosis of Lymphoproliferative Disorder was made. Following this, a panel of immunohistochemical markers was applied and a final diagnosis of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, B-cell type was given.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements between Angiovue Optical Coherence Tomography, Ultrasound Pachymetry and Ocular Biometry

E. Pateras, A. I. Kouroupaki

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/or/2020/v13i430172

Purpose: To compare central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements and their reproducibility when taken by Ultrasound Pachymetry, Ocular Biometry and Angiovue Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT).

Methods: Twenty-five healthy volunteers were recruited creating a sample size of 50 eyes. All subjects had pachymetric measurements by Ultrasound pachymetry (PachPen Handheld Pachymeter, Keeler Instruments Inc), Ocular biometry (IOL Master 700 Swept Source Biometry, Zeiss) and Angiovue Optical Coherence Tomography (Optovue Avanti RTVue XR Angiovue). The measurements of central corneal thickness for the three devices were taken by the same examiner twice for more accuracy.

Results: The average measurements of central corneal thickness by Ultrasound pachymetry (PachPen Handheld Pachymeter, Keeler Instruments Inc), Ocular biometry (IOL Master 700 Swept Source Biometry, Zeiss) and Angiovue Optical Coherence Tomography (Optovue Avanti RTVue XR Angiovue) were 547.26 μm, 551.36 μm, and 536.42 μm, respectively. The mean standard deviation (SD) of repeated measurements by Ocular biometry was 48.87 μm, which was greater than the mean SD of 44.24 μm and 40.35 μm (P < 0.001) by ultrasound pachymetry and Angiovue optical coherence tomography, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the measurement results among the 3 methods (Ultrasound pachymetry vs. Ocular biometry P = 0.019; Ultrasound pachymetry vs. Angiovue Optical Coherence Tomography; P < 0.001; Ocular biometry vs. Angiovue Optical Coherence Tomography P < 0.001). There was a significant linear correlation between the Ultrasound pachymetry and Ocular biometry (r = 0.945, P<0.001), Ultrasound pachymetry and Angiovue Optical Coherence Tomography (r = 0.895, P<0.001), and Ocular biometry and Angiovue Optical Coherence Tomography (r = 0.902, P<0.001).

Conclusion: Central corneal thickness readings were comparable between PachPen Handheld Pachymeter, IOL Master 700 Biometry and Angiovue Optical Coherence Tomography; Angiovue optical coherence tomography gave significantly smaller values. The measurements of the 3 methods showed significant linear correlations with one another. All methods provided acceptable repeatability of measurements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Multifocal Electroretinography Results in the Long-Term Follow-Up of Glaucoma Patients

Ersan Cetınkaya, Sibel Inan, Kenan Yıgıt, Mehmet Cem Sabaner, Ümit Übeyt Inan

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 22-32
DOI: 10.9734/or/2020/v13i430175

Objective: To investigate the changes in macular retinal layers and panretinal neuroretinal functions in the long-term follow-up of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

Materials and Methods: Forty-one patients diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma were followed up for 12 months. According to their mean deviation (MD) values), the patients were put into two groups as Group 1 with early stage glaucoma (MD≥-6) and Group 2 with middle-advanced stage glaucoma (MD<-6). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) were performed at the baseline and at the sixth- and 12th-month evaluations. The OCT, retinal layer and mfERG findings were compared between the two groups.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of gender and age In Group 2, the mean baseline macula Retina Nerve Fiber Layer, Ganglion Cell Layer and Inner Pleksiform Layer measurements were lower in each quadrant compared to Group 1. Concerning progression in OCT measurements, there was no significant difference between the two groups. However, it was noteworthy that in Group 2, there was a decrease especially in the first and second ring amplitudes of the P1 and N2 waves and prolongation of the implicit time. At the 12-month evaluation, there was prolongation of the implicit time of the N1 wave and a decrease in the P1 wave amplitude in Group 1.

Conclusion: Retinal layers are affected in patients with intermediate and advanced stage glaucoma. In the follow-up of early stage glaucoma patients, mfERG measurements can show damage that may occur.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Axial Length Measurements with the Use of Optical Biometry (IOL Master 700) and Ultrasound Biometry (A‐scan 550 Sonomed)

E. Pateras, D. Karadimou

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 33-40
DOI: 10.9734/or/2020/v13i430177

Purpose: To compare measurements of axial length obtained with A-scan and IOL Master. The study was design to collect the axial length values resulting from the application of both methods on the same eye (R.E.) and then to compare them.

Methodology Place and Duration of Study: 50 healthy patients selected randomly after visiting the clinic for daily routine examination. at the general hospital of Athens “Korgialenio – Benakio” were invited to participate in the study. The study took place in collaboration of University of West Attica Dept Biomedical Science Course Optics & Optometry with the general hospital of Athens “Korgialenio – Benakio”. Axial length measurements were obtained both by contact ultrasound (A‐scan 550 Sonomed, Lake Success, NY, USA) and by non‐contact laser interferometry (IOL Master 700 SWEPT Source Biometry). Two sets of measurements were repeated by a single examiner for each method.

Results: A total of 50 eyes in 50 patients were evaluated. All participants volunteer to participate in this study. Estimates of axial length obtained with the two techniques were highly correlated. Axial lengths obtained with the contact method (mean 24.23mm, SD 1.64mm) were lower than those obtained with the non‐contact method (mean 23.29mm, SD 1.59mm) and the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.150). The coefficient of variation was lower with non‐contact laser interferometry (6.58%) than with the ultrasound technique (6.76%).

Conclusion: Similar estimates of axial length are obtained using contact and non‐contact techniques, with the latter producing higher measurements results than the former. The A-scan and the non‐contact laser interferometry device (IOL Master 700) provide both reproducible results with similar the accuracy of measurements of axial length in the clinical setting.

Open Access Review Article

Preseptal Cellulitis: 13 Years Review in a Tertiary Hospital South-Eastern Nigeria

Akunne I. Apakama, Chukwudi C. Uzozie, Chinasa A. Nnubia

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/or/2020/v13i430173

Objectives: To determine the epidemiology and management outcome of preseptal cellulitis seen at a tertiary eye hospital within a period of 13 years.

Materials and Methods: The case files of all patients seen with preseptal cellulitis from 2005 to 2017 were reviewed. The information obtained included the patients’ demography, presenting symptoms and signs, research, treatment, outcome, complications and follow-up.

Results: Of the 123 patients with preseptal cellulitis reported on the study, 66 were males and 57 females. In a range of 0 to 80 years old, the mean age was 19 years. The commonest predisposing factor was trauma (20.3%) followed by upper respiratory tract infection (11.4%).  Progression to orbital cellulitis was seen in 11.4% of the patients.

Conclusion: Preseptal cellulitis is not uncommon in adults as seen in previous studies. Trauma is now more common than sinusitis as a predisposing factor. Despite oral antibiotic therapy some cases may progress to orbital cellulitis.