Open Access Case Report

Central Serous Retinopathy in a Post COVID-19 Asymptomatic Healthcare Worker at a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Unique Case Report

G. Punati Amulya, G. Pradeep Thanuja

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 23-27
DOI: 10.9734/or/2021/v14i330195

Aim: Early detection and management of stress-related Central Serous Retinopathy caused due to COVID-19.

Background: CSR has been associated with stress and is usually self-resolving. COVID-19 is known to induce psychological stress and its effects are many, one of them may be CSR. The importance of understanding the psychological impact of the disease, its consequences, and the counseling of even asymptomatic patients to ensure stress reduction needs to be understood by the treating physician.

Case Report and Discussion: We report the first case of CSR associated with COVID-19 related stress in an asymptomatic health care worker and the follow-up and treatment plan for this case. It has been shown that unfavourable psychic factors influence endogenous hormonal secretion which in turn increases the levels of corticosteroids and catecholamines which have been found to induce CSR.

Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of understanding the psychological effect of the pandemic and recognising this and early treatment will reduce the ill effects of the stress induced by COVID-19.

Open Access Case study

A Rare Case of Anti Phospholipid Syndrome Associated Intermediate and Posterior Uveitis

Y. Ksheeraja, N. T. Manasaveena

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 28-33
DOI: 10.9734/or/2021/v14i330196

Introduction: Autoimmune disorders are often associated with Uveitis. Anti-Phospholipid syndrome(APS) is characterized by increased hypercoagulability and divergent ocular features.

Case Presentation: A 45-year-old male patient presented with complaints of headache for 2 days. The patient gives a history of fever and loss of consciousness 20 days back and was treated symptomatically. On examination Visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/12 in the left eye. On slit-lamp examination, the anterior segment was normal, vitreous cells were 2+ suggestive of vitritis in the left eye. Dilated fundus examination showed exudates in both eyes with macular parafoveal edema in the left eye. Laboratory investigations showed Antiphospholipid Antibody Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Beta 2 glycoprotein IgM positive and raised ESR, PTT, and triglycerides. MRI brain showed acute embolic infarcts in multiple areas.

Management: Topical Steroids and cycloplegic for uveitis and systemic steroids and anticoagulants for systemic manifestations were given and the patient's vision improved to 6/6 and macular edema reduced in the left eye during the follow-up.

Conclusion: APS is a life and vision-threatening multisystem disorder, needs monitoring for INR and Anti phospholipid antibodies. A rare manifestation of uveitis is noted and prompt treatment with topical, oral steroids resolves the uveitis. But to prevent recurrences and further thrombotic events long-term immunosuppression, anticoagulation treatment is required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Dry Eye Disease in Connective Tissue Disorders

Jigish Desai

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/or/2021/v14i330192

Aim: To assess prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) and its severity in patients of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Primary Sjogren’s syndrome in a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat.

Methods: It is a Prospective cross-sectional study of 94 patients diagnosed with SLE and Sjogren’s syndrome. All patients underwent: 1. History taking 1. Visual acuity assessment using standard illuminated Snellen chart 2. Slit lamp examination with dry eye tests 3. Fundus examination The findings were recorded in the proforma and subsequent analysis was done using SSPS software.

Results: DED prevalence was 51.1% overall, 42% among SLE and 66.66%in Primary Sjogren’s syndrome. Severity of DED was noted to be more in Primary sjogren’swith 33.33% having severe DED.

Conclusion: DED overall prevalence in connective tissue disorders is significant, highest being in Sjogren’s. The findings highlight the severity of DED in rheumatoid arthritisgreater to when compared with other connective tissue disorders. Awareness and earlydetection of dry eye disease is of paramount to initiate appropriate treatment and reducevisual morbidity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness with SD-OCT in Eyes with Different Stages of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

E. Pateras, G. Kalogeropoulou

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 6-17
DOI: 10.9734/or/2021/v14i330193

Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) with the use of Spectral-Domain OCT in eyes with AMD of different stages.

Methods: The participants comprised of 30 age-matched normal eyes as controls (Group 1), 19 with early-AMD eyes (Group 2), 14 with intermediate-AMD eyes (Group 3) and 29 with advanced (neovascular) AMD eyes (Group 4). All subjects underwent routine ophthalmologic examination. The choroid images, which included the subfoveal choroidal thickness images, obtained using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (and the technique of Enhanced Depth Imaging-EDI). All of the participants volunteered in this study and remained anonymous due to the protection of their personal data.

Results: 92 eyes with age greater than 65 years old were included. The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 260.93 ± 46.54 μm in age-matched normal eyes, 255.10 ± 44.85 μm in early AMD eyes, 230.92 ± 45.70 μm in intermediate AMD eyes and 206.82 ± 44.43 μm in advanced (neovascular) AMD eyes. There were statistically significant differences in the measurement results between the 4th Group with the 1st Group (P<0.0001) and 2nd Group (P=0.0006) respectively, meaning that SFCT was greater in normal and early AMD eyes.

Conclusion: Decreasing subfoveal choroidal thickness was demonstrated in the progression of AMD, especially in the advanced AMD eyes compared to normal or early AMD eyes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment and Management of Eyelid Injury

Apurva H. Suthar, Kaushal A. Modi

Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal, Page 18-22
DOI: 10.9734/or/2021/v14i330194

Background and aim: Among all sites of injury, eyelid laceration seems to be neglected in terms of sufficient epidemiological investigations. With a thorough understanding of the causes of eye lid lacerations, it is possible to develop a better preventive strategy and hence improve the public health policy in this respect. Hence the aim of the study was to understand the type of eyelid injury and study management of the injuries.

Materials and methods: A total of 100 cases that were reported to the hospital department opd with the chief complain of blunt as well as penetrating eye lid injuries were included in the study. Evaluation by a physician was done for all cases to note the presence of any systemic diseases and for opinion regarding fitness for surgery. In cases where General Anaesthesia (GA) was used, Anaesthetist examined the patient and opined regarding status of the patient towards                           GA.

Results: The results of the present study showed that 3rd and 4th decade were more prone to the eyelid injuries. Majority of the 58 cases showed involvement of left eye whereas the involvement of right eye was seen in 42 cases. In the present study, Minimonoka stent was used for 8 cases of canalicular lacerations and 8 cases of canalicular tear that were not affordable were repaired with 24G Venflon tube.

Conclusion: As the injuries occur more commonly due to road traffic accidents showing 54 cases in our study, preventive measures are to be taken while riding such as controlling speed. Domestic injuries are more common in females. This study showed that Minimonoka stent is an effective and easy tool in reconstructing canalicular tear, with successful anatomical and functional integrity.