This paper describes about the diagnostic and refractive procedures which were performed with the help of stenopaeic slit. The slit is used in performing refraction in cases of high astigmatism, low vision patients, keratoconus patients as well as in performing normal refraction. Slit is also useful in measuring vertex distance to place trial frame properly.
Background: Glaucoma is an important public health problem. Number one causes of irreversible blindness and second causes of blindness worldwide.Glaucoma progresses slowly with few or no noticeable symptoms in the early stage thus many patients present in advanced stage at first hospital visitation.
Glaucoma-related blindness is only avoidable with early detection and treatment, it is imperative to find asymptomatic individuals in the target population. Public awareness and knowledge of glaucoma play important role in preventing blindness and improve quality of life of glaucoma patients.
Aim: To know the level of awareness and knowledge of glaucoma among health workers in a tertiary hospital in North-western Nigeria.
Methods and Materials: A cross-sectional study conducted during glaucoma week in 2016 among health workers in Federal Medical Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State using self-administered questionnaires, asking about socio-demographic characteristics, awareness and knowledge of glaucoma.
The data was analyzed by SPSS Version 20.
Results: A total of 268 health workers participated. The mean age of respondents was 36 years (SD 7.9). The age range was between 19years-60years. The majority 93(34.7%) were in age group of 34yrs-41yrs There were 151 (56.3%) males with M:F 1.3:1. Most 114 (42.5%) of respondents were nurses, and 204 (76.1%) of the hospital workers had heard about glaucoma. The glaucoma awareness was high among the clinical staff and participants with high the level of education (p=0.000). The level of glaucoma knowledge was best in the clinical staff than non-clinical (p=0.000). And higher numbers 202 (75.4%) of the workers believed that glaucoma causes irreversible blindness while 156 (58.2%) were aware that glaucoma could be inherited. The hospital seminars/lectures was a major source of information on glaucoma.
Conclusion: The overall level of glaucoma awareness and knowledge were high among clinical health workers with a high level of education. The hospital seminars/lectures was a major source of information on glaucoma.
Aims: To describe the ophthalmological lesions observed during chronic inflammatory rheumatism to help improve the management of visual function.
Study Design: This was a prospective study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the University Hospital Centre of Brazzaville from June 1st, 2016 to May 31st, 2017.
Methodology: The study involved 40 patients who were followed in the Rheumatology Department and oriented in Ophthalmology to assess ocular involvement. The usual criteria used in rheumatology have made it possible to diagnose rheumatic diseases. These patients were hospitalized or followed by an outpatient rheumatologist. Ophthalmologic examination was performed at least once for all patients and included a measure of best corrected visual acuity, automatic tonometer eye tone, shirmer test, biomicroscopy. Baseline examination was eye after dilation with mydriatic eye drops at indirect ophthalmoscopy.
Results: Of the 40 patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatism, 12 were men and 28 were women. The average age was 40.8 years (range: 10–58 years). The pathologies included systemic lupus in 20 cases (50%), rheumatoid arthritis in 10 cases (25%), spondyloarthropathy in 6 cases (15%), scleroderma in 2 cases (5%), juvenile arthritis idiopathic in 1 case (2.5%) and Behçet's disease in 1 case (2.5%) Twenty-two patients (55%) had ocular involvement. The lesions were unilateral in 14 cases, consisting of uveitis (n = 11), including 7 anterior and 3 posterior cases and 1 case of panuveitis; dry syndrome (n = 8) with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (6 cases) and conjunctivitis sicca (2 cases), and scleritis (n = 3). Three cases of complicated cataract were associated with anterior uveitis. Seven patients had visual acuity ≤ 2/10 in at least one eye and 2 cases had bilateral blindness.
Conclusion: Ocular lesions are commonly associated with rheumatic diseases. These lesions are dominated by uveitis in its anterior form and are seen mainly in spondyloarthropathy. Dry syndrome occurs in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. The lesions can be silent and require appropriate detection and treatment to prevent eye complications and sequelae.
Aims: To determine the epidemiological and clinical aspects of ametropia and their impact on low vision.
Study Design: Retrospective.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, University and Hospital Center of Brazzaville Congo between January 2014 and December 2016.
Methodology: The records of 1,126 children aged 5–15 years who attended the ophthalmic department were assessed. A refractive error was considered visual acuity less than 0.7 (decimal notation of visual acuity) on the measurement of visual acuity by far in monocular to 5 meters using otoptypes adapted for age.
Results: Of the 1,126 records, 432 children had a refractive disorder, with a relative frequency of 38.3%. Of these, 242 (56%) were males, and 190 (44%) were females. Concerning the reasons for consultation, a headache ranked first 218 (50.5%), followed by problems with visual acuity 106 (24.5%). Astigmatism was the most common type of ametropia 348 (80.6%), followed by myopia 52 (12%) and farsightedness 32 (7.4%). Astigmatism was present in 52.4% of boys and 28.2% of girls (P<0.05). Astigmatism was associated with myopia in 15.7% of cases and hyperopia in 7% of cases. The mean age of the patients was 10.4 years, with children aged 8–10 years accounting for the majority of cases (n = 231, 53.4%). Visual acuity was ≤0.7 in 432 patients with refractive errors. Ametropia did not improve in 9 (2%) cases. There were 2 cases (0.5%) of anisometropia. In the majority of 296 (68.5%) cases, ametropia was not severe. In 225 (52.9%) ametropic cases, the astigmatism was the simple form.
Conclusion: The prevalence of ametropia observed in this study points to the need for action to enable early detection and treatment.
Aim: To evaluate the complications of Phacoemulsification (PE) and Extracapsular Cataract Extraction (ECCE) surgery in eyes with Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome (PES).
Design: A retrospective study.
Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the charts of a total of 135 cataract cases with PES that had undergone PE (62) or ECCE (73) surgery. The intraoperative and postoperative complications of the cases with examination findings on the postoperative days 1, 7, 30, 90, and 180 were evaluated.
Results: The 135 cases consisted of 89 (65.92%) males and 46 (34.07%) females with a mean age of 69.78 ±7.84 (50-92) years. PE had been used as the surgical technique in 45.18% and ECCE in 54.81%. The rate of inadequate dilatation with mydriatics was 23.70% and the rate of iridophacodonesis was 7.40% preoperatively. The most common intraoperative complication was miosis (23.70%), followed by capsule rupture (9.62%). Intraoperative complications were statistically significantly more common in the ECCE group (p=0.002). The most common early postoperative complication was corneal edema (26.66%), followed by intraocular pressure (IOP) increase (14.81%) and fibrin reaction (8.88%). Early postoperative complications were statistically significantly more common in the ECCE group (p<0.001). In the postoperative late period, we observed posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in 4 cases (2.96%), capsular phimosis in one case (0.74%) and endothelial failure in 2 cases (1.48%). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding postoperative late complications (p=0.594).
Conclusion: Pseudoexfoliation makes cataract surgery more difficult by causing inadequate mydriasis, zonular weakness and phacodonesis. Taking the complications into account, it can be said that PE is safer than ECCE for the cataract surgery of selected cases with PES. The high rate of ECCE complications in our study could be due to the higher miosis rates in these cases.